B6 Preventing and treating disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B6 Preventing and treating disease Deck (114)
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1

What does every cell have on its surface?

unique proteins called antigens

2

The antigens on the microorganisms that get into your body are...

...different to the ones on your own cells

3

Your _____ system recognises that the ____ on the micro-organisms that get into your body are _____ to the ones on your __ cells

i) immune
ii)antigens
iii)different
iv)own

4

What happens after your immune system recognises the difference between the antigens on the micro-organisms that enter your body?

your WBCs make specific anti-bodies

5

What do antibodies do?

join up with antigens and inactivate or destroy that particular pathogen

6

What can some of your white blood cells do?

memory cells 'remember' the right antibody needed to destroy a particular pathogen

7

What happens if you meet the same pathogen you have before?

the memory cells can make the same antibody very quickly to kill the pathogen, so you become immune to the disease

8

Why do you get ill the first time you meet a new pathogen

there is a delay while your body sorts out the right antibody needed

9

Some pathogens can make you seriously ill very quick;y. Give an example

meningitis

10

Why can you die very quickly by serious diseases?

the disease affects the body before it manages to make the right antibodies

11

What does immunization involve?

giving a vaccine made of a dead or inactivated form of a disease-causing microorganism

12

What do dead or inactivated form of a disease-causing microoganism stimulates?

your body's natural immune response to invading pathogens

13

What happens in a vaccination?

-small amount of dead/inactive forms of a pathogen is introduced into the body
-stimulates while blood cells to product antibodies needed to fight the pathogen and prevent you from being ill

14

Why do vaccinations work?

if you meet the same, live pathogen, your white blood cells can respond rapidly
-make right antibodies
-just as if you already had the disease

15

What do doctors use vaccines to protect us from?

against both bacterial diseases and viral diseases

16

Name two bacterial diseases

tetanus and diphtheria

17

Name three viral diseases

polio, measles and mumps

18

What is herd immunity?

if a large proportion of the population is immune to a disease, spread of pathogen reduces and may even disappear

19

What is a drawback of herd immunity?

it will take money and determination

20

Often medicine doesn't affect the pathogen that is causing the problems. What does it do?

eases the symptoms and makes you feel better

21

Give examples of drugs that are very useful pain killers?

aspirin and paracetamol

22

Painkillers help relieve but...

have no effect on the viruses that have entered your tissues and made you feel ill

23

What are antiseptics and disinfectants used for?

to kill bacteria outside the body; far too poisonous to use inside your body

24

What are the drugs that have really changed the treatment of communicable diseases?

antibiotics

25

What are antibiotics?

Medicines that can work inside your body to kill BACTERIAL pathogens

26

When were antibiotics first widely available?

1940s

27

An example of antibiotic?

penicillin

28

how do antibiotics work?

killing the bacterua that cause disease whilst they are in your body

29

What do antibiotics do?

damage the bacterial cells without harming your own cells

30

What form do antibiotics take

a pill/syrup
-very ill, antibiotics may be put straight into your bloodstream

31

Why are antibiotics sometimes put straight into the bloodstream?

make sure they reach the pathogens as soon as possible

32

Some antibiotics...
Others are...

...kill a wide range of bacteria
...are very specific and only work against particular bacteria

33

Specific bacteria should be treated with...

the specific antibiotic that is effective against them

34

What do viruses do?

reproduce inside the cells of your body

35

Why is is extremely difficult to develop drugs that will kill viruses?

risk of famaging the cells and tissues of your body as the same time

36

Drawback of antibiotics?

cannot kill viral pathogens
-strains of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics are evolving

37

Traditionally, where were drugs extracted from?

plants or microorganisms such as moulds

38

How do scientists make more effective drugs nowadays?

often adapt chemicals from microorganisms, plants and animals

39

What is digitalis and digoxin?

one of several drugs extracted from foxgloves that have been used since the 18th century to help strengthen the heartbeat

40

What do doctors still use digoxin for?

older patients with heart problems

41

Large amounts of these chemicals in drugs can act as?

poisons

42

aspirin originates from?

a compound found in the bark of willow trees

43

What sort of properties to aspirin have and when were they recorded?

anti-flammatory and pain-relieving properties
-400BC

44

In 1897, what did Felix Hoffman do?

synthesised acetyl salicylic acid

45

What is aspirin and what does it do?

acetyl salicylic acid
-relieves pain and inflammation better than willow bark but has fewer side effects

46

aspirin is still commonly used to treat what?

a wide range of health problems

47

In the early 20th century, scientists were looking for what?

chemicals that might kill bacteria and cure infectious diseases

48

In 1928, who was growing bacteria for study purposes?

Alexander Fleming

49

Why was Alexander Fleming rather careless?

often left the lids off his culture plates- health and safety procedures were not as good in those days

50

After one holiday, what did Fleming see?

lots of his culture plates had mould growing on them

51

What did Fleming notice in his culture plates after one holiday?

a clear ring in the jelly around some of the spots of mould

52

What did Flemings realise?

something had killed the bacteria covering the gel

53

What did Flemings call the substance that killed bacteria and why?

penicillin after penicillium mould that produced

54

After his discovery, what did Flemings do?

unsuccessfully tried for several years to extract as active juice from the mould before giving up and moving on to other work

55

What happened about 10 years after Fleming's discovery?

Ernst Chain and Howard Florey were set about trying tying to extract penicillin

56

What did Ernst Chain and Howard Florey do to extract penicillin?

-they gave some penicillin to a man dying of a blood infection
-recovered almost miraculously

57

What did Ernst Chain and Howard Florey demonstrate?

that pencillin could cure bacterial infections in people

58

What happened after Ernst Chain and Florey extracted penicillin?

Working with the company pfizer in the USA, they made penicillin on an industrial scale; producing enough to supply the demands of WW2

59

Give an example where finding new medicine is difficult?

it is not easy to find chemicals that kill bacteria without damaging human cells

60

How are most drugs now synthesised?

by research chemists working in the pharmaceutical industry using chemical banks and computer models
(however, the starting point may still be a chemical extracted from a plant or microorganism)

61

What happens to compounds showing promise as antibiotics?

can be modified to produce more powerful molecules that can be synthesized easily and cheaply

62

Why are scientists also collecting soil samples globally and searching for microorganisms?

to produce a new antibuitic against antibiotic-resistant bacteria

63

How much of soil microorganisms can be cultured in the lab?

1% of soil microorganisms

64

What have scientists developed that would enable them to grow microorganisms in the soil in a controlled way

A special unit

65

Using the special unit technology, scientists were able to do what in 2015?

they announced a completely new type of antibiotic from some soil bacteria

66

In tests so far, what have the soil bacteria proven to do?

the antibiotic has destroyed all bacteria including MRSA, and other antibiotic resistant pathogens
-it worked in mice

67

Scientists test new medicines where?

in the labratory

68

What has to happen to every new medical treatment?

to be extensively treated and trialed in a series of stages before it is used

69

Why must new medical treatments be tested and trialled?

to make sure it works well and is as safe as possible

70

A good medicine is what four things?

1. Effective
2. Safe
3. Stable
4. Successfully taken into and removed from your body

71

What happens when scientists research a new medicine?

they have to make sure all the conditions are met

72

Making sure that a medicine is up to all the right conditions can take how long?

up to 12 years to bring a new medicine into your doctor's surgery

73

How much does it cost for medicines to be extensively tested and trialled?

costs around £1700 million, including failures and capital costs

74

Researchers target a disease and then...

make lots of possible new deugs

75

Possible new drugs are tested in the laboratory why?

to find out if they are toxic and if they seem to do their job
-toxicity and efficacy

76

In the lab, what are the possible new drugs tested on?

cells, tissues, and even whole organs

77

At what stage do the new possible drugs usually fail at?

many chemicals fail at the testing of cells, tissues and even whole organs

78

What happens to the small number of chemiclas that do pass the tests on cells, tissues and even whole organs and why?

labratory tested on animals to find out how they work in a whole living organism

79

Why may testing on a whole living organism be useful?

gives information about possible doses and side effects

80

What are the tissues and animals used for when testing and developing drugs?

as models to predict how the drugs may behave in humans

81

What is the testing called when it is on cells, tissues and live animals?

preclinical testing

82

Drugs that pass animal testing move on to what?

clinical trials

83

What do clinical trials involve?

using healthy volunteers and patients

84

What happens in in clinical trials?

-very low doses are given to healthy people to check for side effects

85

In clinical trials, what happens if the drug is found to be safe?

it is tried on a small number of patients to see if it treats the disease

86

If the drug seems to be safe and effective to affected people, what happens?

bigger clinical trials take place to find the optimum dose for the drug

87

What happens if the medicine passes all the legal tests?

it is licenced so your doctor can prescribe it
-its safety will be monitored for as long as it is used

88

In human trials, what do scientists use?

a double blind trial

89

Why is a double blind trial used?

to see just how effective the new medice is

90

What do the double blind trials involve?

a group of patients with the target disease agree ti take part in the trials
-some are given a placebo
-some are given new medicine
-patients randomly allocated to the different groups
-neither the doctor nor the patients know who has received the real drug/placebo until the trial is complete
-the patients health is monitored carefully

91

A placebo...

does not contain the drug

92

What does the placebo often contain instead?

a different drug that is already used to treat the disease

93

Placebos contain a different drug that is already used to treat a disease. What does this mean?

the patient is not deprived of treatment while taking part in the trial

94

What happens to the results of drug tests and trials like all scientific research?

Published in journals after they have been scritinised in a process of peer review

95

Why are the results of drug tests and trials published in journals?

so that other scientists working in the same area can check the results over, helping to prevent false claims

96

Who looks at the published results of drug trials and decide which drugs give good value for money and should be prescribed by the NHS

National bodies such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
(NICE)

97

Like vaccinations, monoclonal antibodies rely on what?

on the immune system

98

What are monoclonal antibodies?

proteins that are produced to target particular cells or chemicals in the body

99

What are lymphocytes and what do they do?

They are a type of white blood cell that can make antibodies but cannot divide

100

Tumour cells do not usually make antibodies. What can they do?

divide rapidly to make a clone of cells

101

True or false. All mammals, including mice, produce lymphocytes.

True

102

What is a hybridoma?

the cell made when scientists combine mice lymphocytes (that have been stimulated to make a particular antibody) with a type of tumour cell

103

What do single hybridoma cells do?

divide to make a large number of identical cells that all produce the same antibodies

104

What happens are single hybridoma cells divide to make a large number of identical cells that all produce the same antibodies?

the antibodies are collected and purified

105

After they had been collected and purified, the antibodies are called

monoclonal antibodies

106

What are scientists doing now to produce monoclonal antibodies that are less likely to be rejected by human cells?

combining mice cells with human cells

107

Step by step production of monoclonal antibodies

1. i) B lymphocutes make specific antibodies but do not divide
ii) tumour cells that do not make antibodies but divide
2.A hypridoma cell (makes specific antibodies and divides)
3. The cells are cloned
4. Monoclonal antibodies are sepearted, purified and can be used

108

What are antigens and where are they often found?

protein molecules that are often found on the surface of cells (free protein molecules can act as antigens)

109

The monoclonal antibodies produced from a ____ ___ of cells are specific to one ____ ___ on one ____ antigen

i) single clone
ii)binding site
iii)specific

110

Uses of monoclonal antibodies?

1. pregnancy tests
2. diagnosis of disease
3. measuring and monitoring
4. research
5. treating disease

111

Explain how pregnancy tests work?

-relies on monoclonal antibodies that bind to the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) that is made in the early stages of pregnancy.

112

How do monoclonal antibodies help diagnosis of disease

monoclonal antibodies are made to bind to specific antigens foound on pathogens, or on blood clots or on cancer cells

113

How are monoclonal antibodies able to make it easy for doctors to detect problems before they are seriously affecting a patient's health

monoclonal antibodies can also carry markers that make it easy for doctors to see where they have built up

114

How can monoclonal antibodies be used for measuring and monitoring?

monoclonal antibodies are used in hospotals and laboratories to measure or monitor the levels sd