B6 - Preventing and Treating Disease Flashcards Preview

AQA GCSE BIOLOGY PAPER 1 > B6 - Preventing and Treating Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in B6 - Preventing and Treating Disease Deck (30)
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1

What is an antigen?

A unique protein on the surface of a cell

2

What type of cell produces antibodies?

White blood cells - Lymphocytes

3

What does an antibody do?

They join to antigens and destroy the pathogen

4

How does immunity occur (naturally)?

Upon first encountering a new pathogen, white blood cells need to create new antibodies to destroy them.
Some white blood cells will "remember" how to make these specific antibodies if the same pathogen enters the body.
This allows the WBCs to kill the pathogens quickly, before they can have any effect upon the body, making you immune

5

What does a vaccine contain?

A dead or inactivated form of a disease-causing microorganism

6

What does a vaccine do?

It causes immunity through stimulating the WBCs to create antibodies to kill the inactivated pathogen
Now that the WBCs know how to make these antibodies, they can defend against the living version of the pathogen

7

What types of disease can vaccines protect you against?

Bacterial such as Tetanus and Diphtheria
Viral such as Polio, Measles, and Mumps

8

Give an example of a disease that has been eradicated through vaccines

Smallpox

9

What disease do doctors think vaccines can soon eradicate?

Polio

10

What is herd immunity?

Immunising a large proportion of the population to reduce the spread of a pathogen and so a disease

11

What would happen if the herd immunity is lost?

The disease would reappear

12

Give an example of when herd immunity was lost.

1970s UK
There was a scare about the safety of the whooping cough vaccine
Vaccination rates fell from 80% to 30%
In the following years, thousands of children got whooping cough again and many died
People began to use vaccines again so the herd immunity was regained

13

How does the World Health Organisation want to achieve global herd immunity for measles?

WHO wants 95% of children to have two doses of measles vaccine to give global herd immunity

14

What are the current statistics of achieving global herd immunity for measles?

85% of children receive the first dose
56% of children receive the second dose

15

Name two common painkillers

Paracetamol
Aspirin

16

What can painkillers do?

Relieve headaches and sore throats
Reduce pain

17

What do painkillers NOT do?

Kill viruses, bacteria or cure the disease

18

What type of drugs are used to cure bacterial diseases?

Antibiotics

19

What are antiseptics used for?

Killing bacteria outside the body

20

Why are antiseptics and disinfectants not used inside the body?

They are very poisonous and they would kill you

21

When did antibiotics first become widely available?

The 1940s

22

Who discovered Penicillin and what is Penicillin an example of?

Alexander Fleming
Antibiotics

23

How do antibiotics work?

They kill the bacterial cells inside your body, without damaging your own cells

24

Why can antibiotics not be used on viruses?

Viruses invade the human's cells and reproduce inside them
Antibiotics do not effect a human's cells and so the viruses are not killed
It is extremely difficult to develop drugs that will kill viruses without damaging the body's cells at the same time

25

How do antibiotics enter the body?

Usually through a syrup or a pill
If very ill, they could be put straight into the bloodstream

26

How do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?

Evolving / mutating

27

Where can drugs be extract from?

Plants or microorganisms such as moulds

28

What two drugs are extracted from foxgloves and what is their purpose?

Digitalis and Digoxin
They have been used since the 18th century to help strengthen the heartbeat

29

What drug originates from the bark of willow trees?

Aspirin

30

How was penicillin discovered?

Alexander Fleming was careless and often left the lids off of his culture plates
After one holiday, he noticed mould growing on lots of the plates
He also noticed a clear ring in the jelly around some of the mould.
He realised that something had killed the bacteria
"Penicillin" was named after "Penicillium" (the mould that produced it