Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons Flashcards Preview

Chemistry AS > Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic Concepts and Hydrocarbons Deck (96):
1

Define a General Formula

An algebraic formula that can describe any member of a family of compounds

2

Define a empirical formula

The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound (cancel the numbers down if possible)

3

What is the empirical formula of ethane, C2H6?

CH3

4

Define molecular formula

The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule

5

Define Structural formula

Shows the arrangement of atoms carbon by carbon, with the attached hydrogens and functional groups

6

Define skeletal formula

Shows the bonds of the carbon skeleton only, with any functional groups. The hydrogen and carbon atoms aren't shown. This is handy for drawing large complicated structures, like cyclic hydrocarbons.

7

Define Displayed formula

Shows how all the atoms are arranged, and all the bonds between them.

8

What are the general groups called in organic chemistry?

Homologous series

9

What is a homologous series?

A group of organic compounds that have the same functional group and general formula

10

What is the prefix/suffix of a alkane?

-ane

11

What is CH3CH2CH3 as an alkane?

Propane

12

What is the prefix/suffix of a branched alkane?

-alkyl- (-yl)

13

What is CH3CH(CH3)CH3 as a branches alkane?

Methylpropane

14

What is CH3CH=CH2 as a alkene?

Propene

15

What is the prefix/suffix of a alkene?

-ene

16

What is the prefix/suffix of a haloalkanes?

Chloro-/Bromo-/iodo-

17

What is CH3CH2Cl as a haloalkane?

Chloroenthane

18

What is the prefix/suffix of a alcohol?

-ol

19

What is CH3CH2OH as an alcohol?

ethanol

20

What is the prefix/suffix of a aldehydes?

-al

21

What is CH3CHO as an aldehyde?

ethanal

22

What is the prefix/suffix of a ketone?

-one

23

What is CH3COCH3?

propanone

24

What is the prefix/suffix of a cycloalkane?

-cyclo-...-ane

25

What is C6H12 as a cycloalkane?

Cyclohexane

26

What is the prefix/suffix of a carboxylic acid?

-oic acid

27

What is CH3COOH?

Ethanoic acid

28

What is the prefix/suffix of a ester?

alkyl-... -anoate

29

What is CH3CH2COOCH3?

Methyl propanoate

30

What is organic chemistry?

The study of carbon compounds

31

How many covalent bonds can carbon make?

4

32

What kind of bonds does carbon make?

Covalent

33

What is catenation?

Carbons ability to form long chains of Carbon atoms

34

What type of bonds can carbon form?

Single, Double and triple bonds

35

What is a hydrocarbon?

A compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms

36

What does saturated mean?

Organic compounds containing only single (sigma) bonds

37

What does unsaturated mean?

Organic compounds containing one or more double or triple bonds

38

What is a homologous series?

A series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by a CH2 group.

39

What is a functional group?

A group of atoms responsible for the characteristics reactions of a compound

40

What is a Aliphatic chain?

Carbon atoms are joined in a straight or branched chain

41

What is a Alicyclic chain?

Carbon atoms are joined to each other in a ring structure

42

What is a Aromatic compound?

Compounds containing at least one benzene ring

43

What is the suffix for a alkene?

-ene

44

What is the suffix for a alcohol?

-ol

45

What is the suffix for a haloalkane?

none

46

What is the suffix for a aldehyde?

-al

47

What is the suffix for a ketone?

-one

48

What is the suffix for a carboxylic acid?

-oic acid

49

What is the suffix for a ester?

-oate

50

What is the suffix for a acyl chloride?

-oyl chlordie

51

What is the suffix for a amine?

-amine

52

What is the suffix for a nitrile?

-nitrile

53

What is the prefix for a alcohol?

Hydroxyl-

54

What is the prefix for a haloalkane?

Chloro- , Bromo-, Iodo-

55

What is the prefix for a amine?

Amino-

56

What is the functional group for a alkene?

C=C

57

What is the functional group for a alcohol?

-OH

58

What is the functional group for a haloalkane?

-Cl , -Br ,-I

59

What is the functional group for a aldehyde?

-CHO

60

What is the functional group for a ketone?

-C(CO)C-

61

What is the functional group for a carboxylic acid?

-COOH

62

What is the functional group for a ester?

-COOC-

63

What is the functional group for a acyl chloride?

-COCl

64

What is the functional group for a amine?

-NH2

65

What is the functional group for a nitrile?

-CN

66

Define Chemical formula

Different types of formulae are used in organic chemistry

67

Define molecular formula

The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule eg C2H6 for ethanol

68

Define Empirical Formula

The simplest whole number ratio of the atoms of each elements in a molecule eg CH2 for ethene, C2H4

69

Define General formula

The simplest algebraic formula for a member of a homologous series eg. CnH2n+2 for alkenes

70

Define structural formulae

Use the smallest amount of detail necessary to show the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule

71

Define displayed formula

Shows the relative positioning of atoms and the bonds between them

72

Define skeletal formula

A simplified organic formula, shown by removing hydrogen atoms from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups

73

What are the stems for carbon chains from 1 to 10?

1. meth-
2. eth-
3. prop-
4. but-
5. pent-
6. hex-
7. hept-
8. oct-
9. non-
10. dec-

74

Define an Isomer

Molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural formula

75

What are the three types of structural isomerism?

Positional, Chain and Functional Group

76

What are the two types of stereoisomerism?

E/Z and optical

77

Define structural isomer

Have different structural formulae

78

Define Stereoisomers

Stereoisomers have the same structural formula, but the 3D arrangement of atoms is different.

79

Define chain isomerism

The carbon chain is arranged differently

80

Define positional isomerism

The functional group is attached to a different carbon atom

81

Define functional group isomers

They contain different functional groups and so are members of different homologous series

82

What is bond fission ?

The initial stage of an organic reaction which involves breaking a covalent bond.

83

What are the two types of bond fission?

1. Homolytic Fission
2. Heterolytic Fission

84

Define Homolytic fission

Each of the bonded atoms takes one of the shared pair of electrons

85

Define Heterolytic fission

One of the bonded atoms takes both of the shared pairs of electrons

86

What is formed after homolytic fission?

Ions

87

What is formed after heterolytic fission?

Radicals

88

What is a radical?

An atom or group of atoms with one or more unpaired electrons

89

What is a organic reaction mechanism?

A reaction mechanism details how the reaction takes place and what happens in each stage of a reaction

90

What does a FULL curly arrow show?

The movement of a PAIR of electrons

91

What does a Fish-hook curly arrow show?

The movement of a single/ unpaired electron

92

What product is resulted in after heterolytic fission?

A carbocation and ion

93

What product is resulted in after homolytic fission?

Radicals

94

What is a addition reaction?

When 2 molecules join to make 1 molecule

95

What is a substitution reaction?

An atom/ group of atoms is replaced by another atom/ group of atoms.

96

What is a elimination reaction?

Removal of a smaller molecules from a larger molecule.