Flashcards in Electron Configuration and Structure Deck (45):
Define electron configuration?
The arrangement of electrons in an atom
How are electron arranged in an atom?
In energy levels/ shells numbered linearly, with number 1 being closest to the nucleus.
What are the first 10 energy levels in electron configuration?
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 4d, 4f
What are subshells made up of?
Subshells are made up of orbitals - a region the nucleus that can hold up to 2 electrons with opposite spin.
What do orbitals represent?
They represent the mathematical probabilities of finding an electron at any point within certain spatial distributions around the nucleus.
What is the Aufbau principle?
Electrons fill up the lowest energy subshells first
What is the Pauli exclusion principle?
Electrons fill up orbitals singly before pairing up
What is the Hund's rule?
Each orbital holds 2 electrons with opposite or 'paired spins'
What is the exception in the pattern that orbitals fill up in?
The 4s- subshell is filled before the 3d- subshell.
When is a cation formed?
Formed when electrons are lost
When is an anion formed?
Formed when electrons are gained
What rule do Hydrogen and Helium follow?
The duet rule
What are the four types of chemical bonds?
4. Dative covalent
What is an ionic bond?
An electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds act in all different directions so each ions will be surrounded on all sides by ions of the opposite charge.
When is an ionic bond formed?
Results from electron transfer from a metal atom to a non-metal atom.
What is a covalent bond?
An electrostatic attraction between a shared pair of electrons and the nuclei of the bonded atoms. Sigma bonds are formed by the overlap of an s and p orbital or 2 p-orbitals meeting end to end.
Covalent bonds are directional unlike ionic bonds
When is a covalent bond formed?
Occurs between non-metal atoms and each atom provides an electron for the bonded pair
What is a dative covalent bond and when is it formed?
In dative covalent bonds, one atom provides both electrons for the bonded pair
What is metallic bonding and how is it formed?
Electrostatic attraction between a lattice of metal cations and delocalised electrons.
What do dot and cross diagrams show?
The bonding of the outer shell electrons
What is a lone pair?
A pair of non-bonded electrons
How many covalent bonds can Hydrogen make?
How many covalent bonds can Oxygen make?
How many covalent bonds can Nitrogen make?
How many covalent bonds can Carbon make?
What is the substance if there is no bonding?
A monoatomic gas
What are the two main structures of bonding?
1. Giant lattice structures
2. Simple covalent structures
What is a giant lattice structure?
Have a regular 3-D arrangement of atoms which extends throughout the compound
What is a simple covalent structure?
Consists of many small molecules held together by weak intermolecular forces.
When do giant lattice structures occur?
In ionic compounds
What is the melting point of giant lattice structure like? why?
High melting point because lots of energy is required to break the strong ionic bonds in the lattice.
Are giant lattice structures soluble in water?
Do giant lattice structure conduct electricity? Why?
Yes when molten or in solution because ions become free to move as mobile charge carriers.
When do simple covalent molecular structures occur?
Occurs in small covalent molecules
What is the melting point of simple covalent molecular structures like? why?
Low melting point as little energy is required to break weak intermolecular forces
Are simple covalent molecular structures soluble in water?
Often insoluble in water
Do simple covalent molecular structures conduct electricity? Why?
Do not conduct electricity as lack mobile ions or electrons to act as charge carriers.
When do Giant covalent lattice structures occur?
Found in diamond, graphite, silica etc
They have a lattice of strong covalent bonds throughout the compound
What is the melting point of Giant covalent lattice structures like? why?
Very high melting point because a large amount of energy is required to overcome the covalent bonds
Are Giant covalent lattice structures soluble in water?
Do Giant covalent lattice structures conduct electricity? Why?
Do not conduct electricity except graphite
When do Giant metallic lattice structures occur?
Strong electrostatic attraction between metal cations and delocalised electrons
What is the melting point of Giant metallic lattice structures like? why?
High melting point because of strong intermolecular forces
Are Giant metallic lattice structures soluble in water?
Usually insoluble in water