Basic Neuroanatomy and Circuits Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basic Neuroanatomy and Circuits Deck (97)
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1

What does the brain serve as, mediating interactions between local and global environment and determining appropriate behavior output?

Black box

2

How do we study the brain?

Genes --> Cells --> Circuits --> Organs --> Gene x Environment --> Behavior

3

What are behaviors (3 things)?

1. Interactions w the environment
2. Actions controlling the body (breathing, BP, reflexes)
3. Mental activities (learning, writing, etc)

4

How do we study behaviors? (5 things)

Using the scientific method
1. Observation
2. Interpretation
3. Verification (replication)
4. Inductive reasoning (no hyp. to guide, start first w observations)
5. Deductive reasoning (global hyp tested)

5

Galen...

and his humors

6

Renee Descartes

Mind body dualism

7

Galvani

electrical impulses

8

Gall

phrenology

9

Ramon y Cajal

Individual neurons

10

Dale and Loewi

chemical transmission from brain to muscle

11

CNS includes the ...

brain and spinal cord

12

PNS includes the...

somatic and autonomic systems

13

Rostral

front

14

caudal

back

15

anterior

front

16

posterior

back

17

dorsal

top

18

ventral

bottom

19

Forebrain includes the (brain structures)

Telencephalon
Diencephalon

20

Midbrain include the (brain structures)

Superior colliculus (visual)
Inferior Colliculus (auditory)

21

Hindbrain includes the (brain structures)

Medulla
Cerebellum
Pons

22

Parts of the telencephalon

Cerebral hemispheres (4 lobes)
Amygdala
Hippocampus
Basal Ganglia

23

Parts of the Diencephalon

Thalamus
Hypothalamus

24

How many lobes in the cerebral hemisphere?

4 lobes

25

The Amygdala controls the

emotions

26

The Hippocampus controls the

memory

27

the Basal Ganglia controls the

involuntary movement

28

The thalamus is the

gateway to and from the forebrain

29

the hypothalamus is the

relay station for internal regulatory systems

30

The superior colliculus controls...

vision

31

the inferior colliculus controls...

auditory

32

Medulla does...

autonomic functions

33

Cerebellum does...

learned motor responses

34

Pons is the...

relay between cerebellum and cerebrum

35

Occipital lobe does...

vision

36

temporal lobe does...

audition, speech and some memory

37

parietal lobe does...

sensory responses

38

frontal lobe does

motor control and executive functions

39

Keep extracellular spaces clean, provide glucose to active neurons, redirect blood flow to needy areas, scavages damaged neurons

Astrocytes

40

rovide myelin (cellular insulation) for neurons, allowing for fast transmission of action potential

Oligodendrocytes

41

Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes are examples of...

Glia

42

What is vasculature responsible for?

Providing oxygenated blood to neurons

43

Why is neuronal vasculature not continuous with neurons?

Because of the highly selective blood brain barrier that prevents transmission of large particles from blood to brain

44

What can pass through the blood brain barrier?

Small lipophilic molecules (hydrophobic)

45

T or F, Some hydrophilic molecules can pass through the BBB, because membrane transporters exist

True

46

T or F, Amino Acids can pass through BBB?

True

47

L-Dopa (Amino Acid) can or cannot pass the BBB?

Can

48

Dopamine (Amino Acid) can or cannot pass the BBB?

Cannot

49

What happens due to leaky vasculature, absent normal barrier, permitting relatively rapid nutrient exchange between blood and tumor, facilitating growth of the tumor.

Brain tumors

50

What happens due to increased water content in brain. Cytotoxic brain edema following cerebral ischemia, causes damage to cells, neurons and glia. Damage causes the membrane pumps to fail, leading to water accumulation inside the cells

Edema

51

outer membranes between skull and brain, made of connective tissue

Meninges

52

Between the meninges and brain is

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

53

CSF is made by the...

choroid plexus

54

CSF also pools in ventricular system which includes

lateral, 3rd, and 4th ventricles which are continuous with each other and space around spinal cord

55

Neurons communicate w eachother at

synapses

56

Mitochondria

Energy source

57

Microtubules-

provide structural support

58

internal membrane channels that distribute cellular products

Endoplasmic reticulum-

59

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum-

packages secretory products (synaptic vesicles)

60

(manufactures secretory products and cells needed products) reside on rough ER or are unattached in the cytoplasm

Ribosomes

61

found only in cytoplasm of soma and dendrites

rER and ribosomes

62

found only in axons

synaptic vescicles

63

Intracellular is positive or negative?

negative

64

_____, ______ & ______ channels in the plasma membrane allow for ion flow

Potassium, sodium, and chloride

65

What happens to NTs in synapse? (4 things)

1. Bind to post-synaptic receptors
2. Bind to pre-synaptic autoreceptors
3. Re-uptake by pre-synaptic pumps
4. Enzymatic degradation

66

Below are part of what NT family?
1. Glutamate and aspartate
2. Glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

Amino Acid

67

Monoamines are synthesized from...

Amino Acids

68

Below are part of what NT family?
Catecholamines:
– Dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine,

Monoamines

69

Below are part of what NT family?
Indolamine:
– serotonin (5-HT)

Monoamines

70

Below are part of what NT family?
Acetylcholine (ACh)

Monoamines

71

Below are part of what NT family?
Oxytocin, vasopressin, glucagon related peptide, pancreatic polypeptide related peptides, opioids

Peptides

72

Product of at least 2 amino acids linked together

Peptides

73

Acetylcholine is used in PNS to

contract muscles

74

In the upper midbrain, Acetylcholine targets....

Thalamus, brain stem and some hypothalamus

75

In the anterior hypothalamus and central septum, Acetylcholine targets...

cortex, hippocampus and olfactory bulbs
(implicated in Alzheimers disease)

76

All Catecholamine are synthesized from amino acid...

tyrosine

77

Found in midbrain (substantia nigra and ventral tegmentum)

Dopamine

78

Involved in emotion regulation, movement, drug abuse, and reward

Dopamine

79

Found in locus coeruleus in CNS

Norepinephrine

80

Found in adrenal gland in PNS

Norepinephrine

81

Involved in emotional arousal, drug abuse, reward, regulating sleep and mood

Norepinephrine

82

Found throughout medulla in CNS

Epinephrine

83

Found in adrenal gland in PNS

Epinephrine

84

Involved in CNS participation in regulating blood pressure

Epinephrine

85

Found in raphe nuclei in the pons

Serotonin

86

Involved in temperature regulation, sensory perception, onset of sleep, and mood

Serotonin

87

Not exclusive to CNS, also found in pituitary, other endocrine glands, and the immune system

Peptides

88

Concentration of peptides in CNS much lower than

Amino Acid or monoamine transmitters

89

Examples of peptides

Vasopressin and Oxytocin

90

These NT can be released directly into bloodstream

Vasopressin and Oxytocin

91

facilitates water retention in kidney

Vasopressin

92

stimulates milk-ejection reflex in moms of newborns

Oxytocin

93

thought to be involved in maternal-infant attachment and other social behaviors

Vasopressin and Oxytocin

94

What determine whether a NT is excitatory or inhibitory on each neuron

Receptors

95

This receptor changes membrane permeability to ions that either excite or inhibit neurons

Ligand gated ion channel receptor

96

This receptor type is the majority of receptors for the amino acid transmitters, some for acetylcholine, and 1 for 5-HT

Ligand gated ion channel receptor

97

This receptor works indirectly to change excitability of their neurons by changing intracellular Ca2+, or intracellular 2nd messengers (by binding to G-proteins, ie Gs, Gi)

G-protein coupled receptor