Stress, HPA axis, serotonin, depression, and imaging techniques Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Stress, HPA axis, serotonin, depression, and imaging techniques Deck (99)
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1

Who said stress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand”

Hans Seyle

2

T or F, stress alone is not harmful?

True, rather repeated or chronic stress can be harmful

3

Which type of stressor poses an immediate threat to homeostasis?

Systemic

4

Which type of stressor includes extreme temperature, water deprivation, tissue
damage, hypotension, pain, immune challenge

Systemic

5

Which type of stressor consists of elements in the environment that are perceived by the organism as potential dangers. Do not directly cause damage. Processed by cerebral cortex to the limbic system, to the hypothalamus to generate fight or flight

Processive, aka psychogenic

6

Which type of stressor includes elevated sound, intense light, financial woes, public speaking, etc

Processive, aka psychogenic

7

What is the three component response to stress?

Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion

8

What are four factors of stress response?

Endocrine, Behavioral, Immune, Autonomic

9

Increasing ______ of stressor decreases stress

Predictability

10

Increasing _____ over termination of stressor decreases stress

control

11

What is experience of stress impedes future learning

Learned helplessness

12

What are sedatives for stress?

Valium, alcohol

13

What is a Benzodiazepine that increases effectiveness of
GABA activity (for stress)?

Valium

14

What is the biological action of increasing GABA, and is social escapism, distraction?

Alcohol

15

Autonomic nervous system is part of the

PNS

16

Which part of the ANS monitors the internal world?

Sensory component

17

Which part of the ANS activates or inhibits target structures to adjust to changes in internal world?

Motor component

18

What are the two divisions of the ANS?

Sympathetic - fight or flight
Parasympathetic - Rest and recoop

19

What exerts direct control over the entire endocrine system through specific neurons in the hypothalamus that regulate the hormones secreted from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

Hypothalamus

20

What are the functional zones of the hypothalamus? (3)

1. Periventricular zone
2. Medial zone
3. Lateral zone

21

What zone of the hypothalamus is immediately adjacent to the third ventricle. Receives information regarding internal conditions requiring regulation (ex temperature, salt concentration, and levels of hormones secreted by the endocrine system)
– Checks to make certain medial zone doing job correctly

Periventricular Zone

22

Which zone of the hypothalamus surrounds the periventricular zone, contains most of the neuronal nuclei that regulate the pituitary glands instructions to the endocrine system

Medial Zone

23

Which zone of the hypothalamus is the site where cortex, limbic structures, and medulla can modulate hypothalamic activity. These higher brain areas can override the automatic hypothalamic responses to variations detected in the internal environment

Lateral Zone

24

Neurons in the medial zone send their axons to the?

Median eminence

25

What links the median eminence with the anterior pituitary?

Specialized blood vessels (pituitary portal circulation)

26

Medial zone nuclei ALSO send axons to the ______ of the pituitary (neurohypophysis)

Posterior lobe

27

Where do medial zone nuclei release their NT's? (Oxytocin and vasopressin) and as what?

Directly into bloodstream as hormones

28

What NT activates contraction of uterus during final stages of labor and help with maternal milk let-down

Oxytocin

29

What NT increases blood pressure during extreme emergencies when fluid or blood is lost and decreases urinary excretion of water (also known as antidiuretic hormone

Vasopressin

30

What does the Medulla Oblongata regulate? (3 things)

1. Spontaneous respiratory movements
2. Blood pressure
3. Cardiac rhythem

31

Endocrine organs are called?

glands

32

What are the substances called that the endocrine glands secrete?

hormones

33

What controls and modulates glandular response to changes in environment and demands of environment

Brain

34

FSH targets:

Gonads

35

LH targets:

Gonads

36

Thyrotropin targets:

Thyroid

37

Adrenocorticotropin targets:

Adrenal cortex

38

Growth Hormone targets:

Liver
All cells (protein synth)

39

Prolactin targets:

Breasts (growth and milk secretion)

40

Vasopressin targets:

Kidney tubules (Water retention)
Arterioles (Increase BP)

41

Oxytocin targets:

Uterus (contraction)

42

Estrogen targets

Numerous (secondary sexual characteristics - breast growth)

43

Testosterone targets

Numerous (secondary sexual characteristics - muscle growth)

44

Thyroxin targets

Numerous (Increase metabolic rate)

45

Corticosteroids targets

numerous

46

Aldosterone targets

kidney

47

Epinephrine targets

Cardiovascular system, skin, liver, muscle and others

48

Norepinephrine targets

Cardiovascular system, skin, liver, muscle and others

49

Insulin targets

Numerous

50

Glucagon targets

Liver, Muscle

51

Somatostatin targets:

Islets

52

How do axes (such as HPA) maintain homeostasis?

by feedback onto themselves

53

What does negative feedback do ?

Shuts system down

54

What does positive feedback do?

Keep system active

55

What is DSM V mood disorder: diagnosed by licensed psychologist based on report of behavior (self, friends, family)

Major Depressive Disorder

56

How long must symptoms last to qualify as major depressive disorder?

longer than 2 months

57

Major Depressive Disorder affects women or men more?

Twice as many women as men

58

What are the most common ages of people affected by major depressive disorder?

25-44

59

What are three contributing factors to MDD?

Cognitive
Pyscho-Social
Genetic

60

Monoamine hypothesis

Symptoms of depression can be improved by agents that act to increase synaptic concentrations of monoamines.

61

According to the monoamine hypothesis, depression is a deficiency of?

central noradrenergic and/or serotonergic systems

62

Which drug was first used in the 1950’s - first use as an antitubercular drug, produced greater vitality and sociability in patients taking drug

MAOI's (Monoamine oxidase inhibitors)

63

Which antidepressant drug prevents the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters (including serotonin), thereby increasing synaptic concentration

MAOIs

64

which drug for depression is used with extreme caution as often as a last resort?

MAOI's

65

Which depression drug was used in the 1950’s - first use as an antipsychotic, but produced mania in some patients
– Inhibit reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine by blocking SERT and NERT
– severe side-effects

TCA's (tricyclic antidepressants)

66

Which antidepressant drug confounds include:
1) some patients show decreased serotonin levels despite initial increase
2) some patients symptoms get worse before getting better (increased suicide risk)

SSRI's (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)

67

T or F, you can be prescribed more than one antidepressant at a time?

True

68

What are two treatment resistant depression?

Lithium
Thyroid Hormones

69

What is the singe most effective treatment for depression?

ECT (electroconvulsive therapy)

70

What kind of treatment for depression uses focal magnetic energy to stimulate electrical currents within neurons

Transcranial Magnetic stimulation (TMS)

71

What is a behavioral intervention for depression?

Psychotherapy (cognitive behavioral therapy)

72

What disorder is characterized by significant mood swings?

Bipolar disorder

73

Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally or unequally?

Equally

74

When does bipolar disorder start?

between ages 15-25

75

T or F? Bipolar disorder is highly heritable?

TRUE

76

What are the three types of Bipolar Disorder?

BD1
BD2
Cyclothymia

77

Which type of Bipolar Disorder consists of mania and major depression?

BD1

78

Which type of bipolar disorder consists of not full mania (although high energy) and major depression?

BD2

79

Which type of bipolar disorder consists of less severe mood swings?

Cyclothymia

80

Carbamazepine (Tegretol), Lithium carbonate, lithium citrate and Valproate are examples of what for bipolar disorder?

Mood stabilizers

81

MRI looks at ______, while fMRI looks at ______

structure
function

82

CT or CAT looks at?

Structure

83

DTI and DSI looks at?

structure

84

PET looks at?

combo of structure and function

85

EEG looks at?

function

86

Which neuroimaging technique has good temporal resolution but poor spatial resolution?

EEG
MEG

87

Which neuroimaging technique has good spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution?

MRI, fMRI

88

MEG looks at?

function

89

What is a limitation of fMRI?

not sensitive enough for white matter

90

What can study neuronal connectivity non-invasively and it provides a quantitative assessment of anatomical connectivity in WM?

Diffusion tensor imaging

91

DTI is

Diffusion Tensor Imaging

92

DSI is

Diffusion Spectrum Imaging

93

CAT or CT is

COmputerized Axial Tomography

94

What is a high resolution 3 dimensional x-ray

CAT or CT

95

PET is

Positron Emission tomography

96

Which neuroimaging technique requires use of injected radioisotope tracer bound to a biologically active molecule

PET

97

Which neurophysiological technique is the net of electrodes placed directly on head
– Measures voltage fluctuations along the scalp
– Summation of synchronous firing of multiple (thousands) neurons (electrical field)

EEG

98

ERP is

Event related potential

99

Records magnetic fields produced by synchronized neuronal electrical currents

MEG