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Flashcards in Neurodevelopment and ethological animal models Deck (37)
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1

Within the first 2 weeks after fertilization, the cells of the embryonic disc differentiate into:

Endoderm
Ectoderm

2

Endoderm becomes the

respiratory and digestive tract

3

Ectoderm becomes the

nervous system

4

3-4 weeks after conception, ectoderm forms primitive

Neural plate

5

~18 days, neural plate forms the

neural tube

6

Top of the neural tube forms 3 bulges which become:

1. Prosencephalon (forebrain)
2. Mesencephalon (midbrain)
3. Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

7

Prosencephalon

(forebrain)

8

Mesencephalon

(midbrain)

9

Rhombencephalon

(hindbrain)

10

Remainder of the neural tube becomes the

spinal cord

11

remain outside the neural tube as it folds,

Neuroblasts (young neurons)

12

Neuroblasts (young neurons) remain outside the neural tube as it folds,
becoming the

neural crest

13

Neural crest gives rise to the peripheral

Autonomic nervous system

14

Steps of neuronal development (6)

1. Induction
2. Proliferation
3. Migration
4. Differentiation
5. Circuit formation
6. Cell Death

15

Process that allows some parts of the ectoderm of the neural disc to become transformed into the neural plate

Induction

16

Crucial initiating step is interaction between the ectoderm and the mesoderm

Induction

17

If top (rostral) end of neural tube doesn’t close, child is born without

cortex (anencephalic)

18

If caudal end of neural tube doesn’t close,

general motor impairments, but cognition spared

19

The cell division throughout which the few cells making up the neural plate and neural tube multiply to become the billions of cells of a complete brain

Proliferation

20

When does proliferation begin?

After the neural tube closes

21

How many phases does proliferation occur in?

2

22

Movement of newly formed cells from the region in which they proliferated to their final destination in the brain

Migration

23

In migration, cells move back and forth between the ______ and _______ zones until they stop in the _______ or ______ zone

ventricular and marginal zones
stop in the intermediate or subventricular zone

24

In Migration, cells terminating in the _____ zone continue to proliferate

subventricular zone
(between intermediate and ventricular zone)

25

Cell bodies of radial glial cells remain in the ____ zone, while cell processes radiate out to the surface are used as scaffolding for neurons to traverse during migration

subventricular zone

26

Normal migration results in

deep layers of cortex formed first by oldest (earliest formed) neurons

27

Thalamic nuclei originate as well as cortical layers form as a result of...

Aggregation

28

Mutual adhesion of similar cells as a first step in the formation of fxl brain parts is part of.....

Aggregation

29

Process by which each neuron acquires its given size, shape, location, connections, and mode of transmitting messages (excitatory vs. inhibitory)

Differentiation

30

Apoptosis

programmed cell death (NOT necrosis)

31

Olfactory parts of the brain develop during (also includes hippocampus)

telencephalic refinement (second month)

32

provide a blueprint for vulnerability or resistence by altering fundamental developmental outcomes

Genes

33

participate in the process of tipping the developmental scales towards a better or poorer outcome

Environmental factors

34

How we study neurodevelopmental disorders...

Genes
Cells
Circuits
Organs
Gene x Environment Behavior

35

strong analogies to the
endophenotypes in the human disorder

Face validity

36

the same biological dysfunction that causes the disorder in humans (gene mutation/ circuit effects)

Construct validity

37

predictive response to treatments that reverse or prevent the disorder

Predictive validity