Homeostasis, Sensation and Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Homeostasis, Sensation and Perception Deck (164)
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1

What refers to the simultaneous arrival at each ear of different portions (phases) of the oscillating sound wave

Phase Differences

2

Which ear receives less intense stimulation in regard to intensity differences?

Ear opposite the source of the sound

3

What Functions to maintain balance, position of the head in the upright position, and adjustment of eye movement to compensate for head movements

Vestibular system

4

Which component of the vestibular system responds to force of gravity and informs the brain about head orientation?

Vestibular Sacs

5

Which component of the vestibular system responds to angular acceleration, but not steady rotation?

Semicircular Canals

6

Which component of the vestibular system responds weakly to changes in position or linear acceleration?

Semicircular Canals

7

What are the Utricle and Saccule located within?

Vestibular Sacs

8

In the vestibular system, what are circular and each contain a patch of receptive tissue containing receptor hair cells?

Utricle and Saccule

9

What is the cilia embedded in within the utricle and saccule . What does it do when there is motion?

Embedded in an overlaying gelatinous mass containing crystals of calcium carbonate
They shift in response to motion

10

What are the 3 major planes the semicircular canals approximate?

Sagittal, transverse and horizontal

11

What are the receptors for the semicircular canals? Where are they?

Receptors are HAIR CELLS, found in the cupula within the ampulla.

12

Which part of the vestibular system has canals filled with fluid and receptors pick up on differences in fluid motion?

Semicircular Canals

13

In the vestibular system, what do bipolar cell bodies give rise to?

Afferent Axons of the vestibular nerve (part of CN 8). in the vestibular ganglion

14

Where do most of the vestibular nerve axons synapse?
Where do SOME of the vestibular nerve axons travel directly to?

within the Medulla Nuclei
SOME travel to the cerebellum

15

What is the vestibular pathway from the nuclei?

Nuclei --> cerebellum --> Spinal cord --> medulla --> pons

16

What projections are responsible for feelings of nausea and vomiting during motion sickness (vestibular)?

Projections to the lower brainstem

17

What do the connections to the cranial nerve nuclei control (vestibular system)?

Eye muscles to compensate for sudden head movements such as running

18

What is the reflex called that compensates for sudden head movements such as running?

Vestibulo-Ocular reflex

19

What provides information about what is happening on the surface of our body and inside it

Somatosensation

20

What part of somatosensation detects pressure, vibration, heat, cooling, and tissue-damaging events (skin)

Cutaneous

21

What part of somatosensation detects changes in muscle length and force exerted on muscles (body position)

Kinesthesia

22

What part of somatosensation detects changes in internal organs, including stretch, temperature, and chemicals

Organic

23

Merkel disks detect?

Touch

24

Meissner Corpuscles detect?

Touch

25

Pacinian Corpuscles detect?

Pressure

26

Ruffini endings detect?

Pressure

27

What responds to low frequency vibrations on hairy skin?

Unencapsulated nerve endings and Ruffini endings

28

What are found in the dermis, are largest sensory end organs (visible to naked eye) and sensitive to high-frequency vibration? (Hairless skin)

Pacinian Corpuscles

29

What are found in epidermis and sensitive to low frequency vibration (Hairless skin)

Meissners Corpuscles

30

What are found at base of epidermis and respond to skin indentation (hairless skin)

Merkels Disks

31

Where does somatosensory information enter the central nervous system?

Through cranial and spinal nerves

32

What drives spinal reflexes that maintain local aspects of pain control and motor compensation?

Somatosensory information

33

Where does somatosensory information flow from?

Spinal cord to specialized regions of the Thalamus (VPL) through parallel pathways

34

What does the DCML tract (Dorsal Column Medial Lemniscal) detect?

Precisely localized information - touch, kinesthesia, proprioception

35

What does the Spinothalamis (Anterolateral) Tract detect?

Poorly localized information - pain, temperature and visceral sensation

36

Which somatosensory tract detects Precisely localized information - touch, kinesthesia, proprioception

DCML

37

Which somatosensory tract detects Poorly localized information - pain, temperature and visceral sensation

Spinothalamic (Anterolateral) Tract

38

Where do thalamic relay neurons project from?

VPL to primary somatosensory cortex

39

Where is the integration of information about personal and peripersonal space (touch, position, pressure)?

Parietal Lobe (Anterior Parietal Cortex - APL)

40

What is the relay point for all sensory pathways (EXCEPT olfaction)?

Thalamus

41

How is the somatosensory cortex arranged?

in cortical columns

42

T or F? Within a cortical column, neurons respond to a particular type of stimulus applied to a particular part of the body?

True

43

What responds to original bending and release, but not to steady pressure (adaptation) (not due to fatigue of receptor)

Pacinian Corpuscle

44

T or F, Pacinian Corpuscles respond well to moving stimuli?

True, used to analyze shapes and textures (hard, soft, sticky, slippery, rough, etc).

45

What Stimuli are chemical instead of physical stimuli

Chemosenses

46

What is Related to eating; this sense allows us to determine the nature of things we put in our mouths

Gustation

47

What are the five qualities of taste?

Salty, Sweet, Umami, Bitter, Sour

48

What specific biological need does Umami taste provide?

Amino acids

49

What specific biological need does sweet provide?

Calories

50

What specific biological need does salt provide?

Sodium chloride (an essential mineral)

51

What is taste (flavor) comprised of?

taste, texture, temperature and odor

52

Taste buds are what kind of organs?

Receptive organs

53

What is on the anterior 2/3 of tongue, contain 4-6 taste buds each

Fungiform Papillae

54

What kind of taste bud is eight parallel fold along each edge of the back of the tongue,
contain 1300 taste buds within these folds

Foliate Papillae

55

What is arranged in an inverted V on posterior 1/3 of tongue, contain 250 taste buds

Circumvallate Papillae

56

What do taste buds consist of (receptor cells)

20-50 receptor cells arranged like an organge

57

Where is the cilia located on each taste bud? Where do they project to?

At the end of each cell - project through the opening of the taste bud into the saliva

58

What is the lifespan of the taste bud receptor?

10 days

59

T or F? Receptor cells do not fire action potentials, but release transmitter in graded fashion onto nerve endings

True

60

Which nerve carries anterior taste?

Chorda Tympani (CT)

61

Which nerve carries anterior tactile (oral sensation)?

Trigeminal (V)

62

Which nerve carries posterior taste and tactile?

Glossopharyngeal (IX)

63

Oral sensation combines with retronasal olfaction to produce what in the mouth?

Flavor

64

What is the first relay station in the gustatory pathway?

Nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla

65

From the NTS where does the gustatory pathway travel next?

ventral posteromedial thalamus

66

From the thalamus, where does the gustatory pathway go next?

gustatory cortex in the frontal insular and opercular cortex

67

taste is ipsilaterally or bilaterally represented?

Ipsilaterally

68

Where does the Nucleus of the solitary tract also project to, perhaps contributing to rewarding properties of taste?

Amygdala and hypothalaumus

69

What conveys not only the nature of objects, but evokes memories and emotion as well?

Olfaction

70

What helps us identify a large array of environmentally important objects: food, kin, prey, etc.?

Olfaction

71

What is it called when someone lacks the sense of smell?

Anosmic

72

What is the specialized organ (in some species) for detecting reproductive cues?

Vomeronasal organ

73

Olfactory receptor cells reside within two patches of mucous membrane called What? located at the top of the nasal cavity

olfactory epithelium

74

Where is the olfactory epithelium located?

top of the nasal cavity

75

How much air that enters the nostril reaches the epithelium? What is needed to sweep air upward?

less than 10%
A sniff

76

Olfactory mucosa contains nerve endings of which cranial nerve?
Mediates what?

V
Pain sensation (amonia)

77

What is the bone at the base of the rostral part of the brain that has olfactory receptor cell bodies that line it?

Cribriform plate

78

What is the turnover rate of olfactory receptor cells?

about 60 days

79

What opens the sodium (Na+) channels to depolarize the cell and convey an AP in olfactory receptors?

Odor molecules that dissolve in the mucus and stimulate receptor molecules on the cilia

80

Where do axons of receptor cells that enter through the skull through perforated cribiform plate terminate?

Olfactory bulb

81

Axons synapse with dendrites of __________ in the __________; all cells expressing a particular receptor project to the same glomeruli

Mitral cells,
Olfactory glomeruli

82

Olfactory tract axons project to the?

Primary olfactory cortex
directly on the pyriform cortex

83

Where does the pyriform cortex project to?

hypothalamus and dorsomedial thalamus

84

Where do hypothalamus and dorsomedial thalamus project to?

Orbitofrontal cortex

85

Where is taste and olfaction combined to convey perception of taste?

Orbitofrontal cortex

86

Olfactory pathway

Primary olfactory cortex --> hypothalamus and dorsomedial thalamus --> orbitofrontal cortex

87

Gustatory Pathway

Nucleus of solitary tract --> ventral posteromedial thalamus --> gustatory cortex

88

Orthonasal detects?

Environmental odors

89

Retronasal detects?

Food-emitted odors

90

What combines with taste and oral somatosensory cues to produce a unitary sense of flavor?

Retronasal Olfaction (RO)

91

What is the stimulus for vision?

Light

92

What is the perception of color determined by? (3 things)

1. Hue - wavelength
2. Saturation
3. Brightness

93

What is the outermost layer of the eye, opaque, and does not allow light entry

Sclera

94

What is the the outer transparent layer at the front of the eye that allows light entry

Cornea

95

What is the the pigmented ring of muscles situated behind the cornea

Iris

96

What is the opening of the iris that determines amount of light entry

Pupil

97

What sits right behind iris, made of transparent layers whose shape is controlled by ciliary muscles. Changes in shape allow the eye to focus images of near or distant objects on the retina (accomodation)

Lens

98

What is the gelatinous substance giving the eye its bulk

Vitreous Humor

99

What is the the interior lining of the back of the eye (contains the photoreceptors)?

Retina

100

What is the central region of retina

Fovea

101

What is the part of the retina where the axons conveying visual information gather and exit the eye through the optic nerve (this is your blindspot; there are no photoreceptors)

Optic Disk

102

What is Cooperative movements keeping both eyes fixed upon the same target

Vergence

103

What is abrupt gaze shifts?

Saccadic

104

What is purposeful track of object?

Pursuit

105

What are the photoreceptors of the eye?

Rods and Cones

106

What photoreceptor provides vision of low acuity and are VERY sensitive to light, but not color?

Rods

107

Approx how many rods and cones are there?

Rods - 120 million
Cones - 6 million

108

What photoreceptor provides us with most of the information about our environment, is responsible for daytime vision and high acuity, color vision?

Cones

109

What photoreceptor is located int he fovea?

Cones

110

What is is activated by light and hyperpolarizes, reducing inhibitory neurotransmitter release onto bipolar cells, which project to ganglion cells (net result is activation of ganglion cell)

Photoreceptor

111

___________ do not fire AP, but release glutamate (NT) in graded fashion?

Photoreceptors

112

How do axons of retinal ganglion cells bring info to the rest of the brain?

By ascending through the optic nerves to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLGN) of the thalamus

113

Where does the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus project to?

Primary visual cortex (aka striate cortex)

114

Where do optic nerves cross?

Optic chiasm

115

The nasal sides of the ganglion cells cross to the __________ DLGN?

contralateral

116

The axons from the outer halves of the retina project to ___________ DLGN.

Ipsilateral

117

Each hemisphere receives information from what part of the visual scene?

the contralateral half

118

Which cells become excited when light falls on the photoreceptors. Specifically, light must fall within the neurons receptive field

Ganglion cells

119

What are the two types of ganglion cells?

On and Off

120

Which type of ganglion cell is excited by light falling in the center, inhibited when light falls in surround

"On" ganglion cell

121

Which type of ganglion cell is inhibited by light falling in the center, but excited when light falls around it?

"Off" ganglion cell

122

What hues are the three types of receptors in the eye sensitive to, which allows us to detect color?

Blue, green and red

123

What is it called when someone has red/green color blindness- red and green look yellow, visual acuity is normal (suggesting retina not lacking red or green cones), but rather, red opsin is absent

Protanopia

124

Path from eye to brain:

Retinal ganglion cells --> lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) --> Primary visual cortex (striate cortex)

125

How many layers is the striate cortex?

6

126

What takes information from striate cortex and combines it

Visual association cortex

127

What information does the visual association cortex take from the striate cortex and combine (4 things)

1. Perception of color
2. Analysis and complexity of form
3. Perception of movement
4. Perception of location

128

Where do the two streams of analysis for visual association cortex begin? Do they proceed in the same direction?

striate cortex
No, they proceed in different directions

129

Which visual association stream turns downward, ending in inferior temporal lobe- responsible for recognizing what an object is

Ventral stream

130

Which visual association stream turns upward ending in posterior parietal lobe- responsible for recognizing where the object is located

Dorsal stream

131

Maintaining stability (homeostasis) through change

Allostasis

132

Process of adaptation to acute challenge

Allostasis

133

The price the body pays for being forced to adapt to adverse or chronic psychosocial or physical stimuli

Allostatic overload

134

Examples of allostatic overload:

-Extreme change in physical environment
-Chronic exposure to drugs
-Extreme change in psychosocial environment
-Change in physical capacity

135

_____ is the stimulus-detection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain.

Sensation

136

_______ making “sense” of what our senses are telling us – is the active process of organizing this stimulus input and giving it meaning

Perception

137

defines lowest stimulus quantity that can be perceived from nothing

threshold

138

Beyond threshold, ______ _______ determines intensity

stimulus magnitude

139

The lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected 50 percent of the time. The lower the absolute threshold the greater the sensitivity.

Absolute threshold

140

The lowest concentration at which a stimulus can be
identified.

Identification threshold

141

The smallest difference between two stimuli that people can perceive 50 percent of the time. Sometimes call the “just noticeable difference”

Difference threshold

142

Conveys information about stimulus intensity and timing – Differs across neurons

Firing rate

143

Diminishing responsiveness of a sensory receptor to prolonged presentation of a stimulus

Adaptation

144

Act to modulate relay neurons (turn up or down)

Local circuits

145

Circumscribed area from which a sensory cell receives information
– Conveys spatial information

receptive fields

146

Retina

Primary visual cortex
Secondary visual cortex

147

Cochlear Nuclei

Primary auditory cortex

148

Vestibular Nuclei

Somatosensory cortex

149

Spinal cord and brainstem

Somatosensory cortex

150

Olfactory bulb

Limbic structures, hypothalamus

151

Medulla

Somatosensory cortex

152

frequency of vibration, measured in cycles per second (Hertz, Hz)

Pitch

153

function of intensity or the difference between the apex and nadir of the wave, measured in amplitude ( decibels, dB)

Loudness

154

quality/complexity of a sound. Determines the nature of the particular sound. Allows us to distinguish an oboe from a flute playing the same note. Most natural stimuli are complex sounds

Timbre

155

Sound is funneled via the pinna through the external auditory canal to the tympanic membrane (eardrum)

External ear

156

Hollow region that contains the ossicles (bones) which are
vibrated by the tympanic membrane

Middle ear

157

Tympanic membrane connects with the malleus and
transmits vibrations via the incus and stapes to the cochlea

Middle ear

158

Cochlea (land snail) part of inner ear and filled with fluid

Inner ear

159

the receptive organ within the cochlea

Organ of Corti

160

Auditory receptive cells

Hair cells

161

Anchor for hair cells

Basilar membrane

162

where cilia of hair cells connect here, and is rigid

Tectorial membrane

163

Moderate to high frequency
detected by

Place coding

164

Low frequency detected by

Rate coding