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Flashcards in BB anatomy Deck (44):
1

Where does the middle meningeal artery enter the skull?

Foramen spinosum

2

Where does the middle meningeal artery branch from?

Maxillary artery
From external carotid

3

What makes up the nasal septum?

Ethmoid
Vomer
Nasal hyaline cartilage

4

What is found on the ventral surface of the brainstem?

Cerebral peduncles
Pons
Pyramids (where CST decussate)
Olives
All cranial nerves leaving the brainstem except for IV

5

What is found on the dorsal surface of the brainstem?

Superior colliculi (visual)
Inferior colliculi (auditory)
Trochlear nerve emerging at the midbrain-pons junction
Superior, middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles
Cuneate fasciculi laterally
Gracile fasciculi medially
Obex = 1/3 of the way up of the medulla where 4th ventricle begins

6

Blood supply to the dorsal brainstem

PCA
AICA
PICA

7

Blood supply to the ventral brainstem

Basilar
ASA

8

What does CN III innervate?

Extraocular muscles (except superior oblique and lateral rectus)
Levator palpebrae superioris
Ciliary muscle (parasympathetic)
Sphincter pupillae (parasympathetic)

9

CN III lesion

Dilated pupil
Eye in down and out position

10

CN IV lesion

Double vision when looking down

11

2 major branches of V3

Lingual nerve
- supplies sensation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
- carries chorda tympani from facial nerve for taste sensation

Inferior alveolar nerve
- sensation to lower teeth
- enters mandible though mandibular foramen
- exits though mental foramen

12

Clinical significance of abducens damage

Long intradural course
Easily compressed when ICP is raised

13

CN VI lesion

Medial deviation on affected side
Loss of abduction

14

CN VII branches

Greater petrosal nerve --> lacrimal gland
Nerve to stapedius
Chorda tympani
Posterior belly of digastric and stylohyoid
Terminal branches

15

Terminal branches of CN VII

Temporal --> frontalis
Zygomatic --> orbiculairs oculi
Buccal --> buccinator, orbicularis oris
Mandibular --> mentalis
Cervical --> platysma

16

Bell's palsy vs stroke

Bell's palsy = complete unilateral paralysis
Stroke = forehead sparing

17

Tympanic branch of CN IX

Sensation to middle ear, tympanic membrane and Eustachain tube
Parasympathetic to parotid gland

18

What innervates the carotid sinus and body?

CN IX

19

Which muscle does CN IX supply?

Stylopharyngeus

20

Which tonsils does CN IX innervate?

Palatine via tonsillar nerve

21

What muscles are supplied by CN X?

Palate (except tensor veli palatini --> V3)
Pharynx (except stylopharyngeus --> CN IX)
Palatoglossus
Laryngeal muscles

22

What does the transverse fissure separate?

Occipital lobe
Cerebellum

23

What makes up the lentiform nucleus?

Putamen
Globus pallidus

24

What makes up the dorsal striatum

Caudate
Putamen

25

Superior cerebellar peduncle

Output from the cerebellum to the pons --> thalamus --> cortex

26

Middle cerebellar peduncle

Input to the cerebellum from the pons
About motor activities initiated by the cortex

27

Inferior cerebellar peduncle

Input to the cerebellum via the spinocerbellar tract from peripheral proprioceptors

28

Signs of cerebellar injury

DANISH
Dysdiadochokinesia
Ataxia
Nystagmus
Intention tremor
Slurred speech
Hypotonia

29

Thalamic nuceli

LGN = vision
MGN = hearing
VPL = touch, pain, pressure
Anterior = memory
VL = motor from BG and cerebellum
VA = motor from BG

30

What does the epithalamus/pineal gland secrete?

Melatonin

31

Layers of the scalp

Skin = many sweat and sebaceous glands
Connective tissue
Aponeurosis = tendinous sheet
Loose CT = allows movement of scalp
Pericranium = dense CT that is the periosteum

32

T1 weighted

CSF and bone = black
Fat = white
Grey matter darker than white

33

T2 weighted

CSF and bone = white
Fat = black
White matter darker than grey

34

Which parts of the orbit are most commonly fractured?

Medial and inferior walls
Ethmoid and maxillary

35

Epidural haematoma

Impact to the head
Tearing a vessel running between skull and dura
Arterial bleed
Lucid interval then sudden unconsciousness
Convex shaped on scan

36

Subdural haematoma

Caused by an acceleration/deceleration incident
Tearing of bridging veins between dura and arachnoid
Gradual headache and confusion
Crescent shaped appearance on scan

37

Subarachnoid haemaorrhage

May be with small trauma or spontaneous rupture of an aneurysm
Blood within the subarachnoid space
Blood can be seen within the sulci and fissures on scan
Thundercap headache, vomiting, confusion, loss of consciousness

38

Common sites of brain contusion

Inferior surface of frontal lobes
Lateral and inferior temporal lobes
Region adjacent to lateral fissures
Occipital poles

39

Symptoms of posterior parietal damage

Sensory neglect
Constructional apraxia

40

Symptoms of visual cortex lesion

Contralateral homonymous hemianopia

41

ACA stroke

Urinary incontinence
Behaviour changes
Lower body sensorineural loss

42

PCA stroke

Contralateral homonymous hemianopia
Reading and writing deficits
Impaired memory

43

What is the anterior choroidal artery?

From the MCA
Supplies the hippocampus, amygdala and medial temporal lobe

44

Lateral medullary syndrome

Wallenburg syndrome
PICA stroke
Sudden onset
Ipsilateral horner syndrome
Vertigo
Nystagmus
Dysarthria (slurred speech)
Dysphonia
Loss of gag reflex