Flashcards in HD anatomy Deck (80):
What forms the pelvic brim?
Pectineal line of superior pubic ramus
Arcuate line of ilium
Border of greater sciatic foramen
Superior = anterior sacroiliac joint
Anterolaterally = greater sciatic notch
Posteromedially = sacrotuberous ligament
Inferior = sacrospinous ligament
What passes through the greater sciatic foramen?
- superior gluteal vessels + nerve
- sciatic nerve
- inferior gluteal vessels + nerve
- pudendal nerve
- internal pudendal vessels
- posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
Borders of the lesser sciatic foramen
Anterior = ischial tuberosoty
Superior = sacrospinous ligament
Posterior = sacrotuberous ligament
What passes through the lesser sciatic foramen?
Internal pudendal vessels
What passes through the obturator foramen?
Obturator artery, vein, nerve
Superior gluteal nerve
Gluteus medius and minimus
Inferior gluteal nerve
Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
Sensation to posterior thigh and leg and some of the perineum
Skeletal muscles of the perineum
Levator ani + coccygeus
Sensation to most of the perineum
Blood supply to the rectum
Superior = IMA
Middle = IIA
Inferior = pudendal
Venous drainage of the rectum
Superior --> HPV
Middle --> IVC
Inferior --> IVC
Posterior division of internal iliac
Anterior division of internal iliac
Uterine --> vaginal
From abdominal aorta
Crosses external iliac at pelvic brim
Enters suspensory ligament
Parts of the fallopian tube
Supports of the uterus
Anterior = pubocervical ligament
Lateral = transverse cardinal ligament
Posterior = uterosacral ligament
Lymphatic drainage of the female pelvic organs
Main pelvic viscera --> internal iliac nodes --> lumbar trunks
Ovaries and fallopian tubes --> lateral aortic nodes
What attaches to the perineal body in females?
External anal sphincter
Superficial and deep transverse perineal muscles
Anterior fibres of levator ani
External urinary sphincter
Agent injected into CSF at the L3/4 level
Complete anesthesia from the waist down
Caudal epidural block
Catheter allowing anaesthetic to be applied to S2-4 nerve roots
Cervix, vagina, birth canal, pelvic floor and perineum anaesthetised
Lower limbs and uterine body not anaesthetised
Pudendal nerve block
Agent injected around the peripheral nerve
Only inferior vagina and perineum anaesthetised
Layers of the spermatic cord
Internal spermatic fascia
Cremaster muscle and its fascia
External spermatic fascia
Contents of the spermatic cord
Vas deferens + artery
Testicular artery + vein
Cremasteric artery + vein
Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve
Sympathetic and visceral afferents
Borders of the inguinal triangle
Inferior epigastric vessels
Lateral border of rectus abdominus
Which side does varicocele occur on?
What is the main blood supply to the vas deferens?
Superior vesical artery
5a reductase inhibitor
Muscles of the scrotum
Both supples by genital branch of GF nerve (L1-2)
- temperature regulation
- corrugated appearance
- smooth muscle
- skeletal muscle
- between the internal and external spermatic fascia
- arises from the internal oblique musculature
- involved in temperature regulation
What innervates the skin of the scrotum?
Genital branch of GF nerve (L1-2)
Anterior scrotal nerves from ilioinguinal nerve (L1)
Posterior scrotal nerves from perineal nerve from the pudendal nerve (S2-4)
Perineal branches of the posterior femoral cutaenous nerve (S1-3)
Arteries of the penis
Dorsal artery of the penis
Deep arteries of the penis
3 branches of the pudendal nerve
- sensation to anal triangle
- motor to levator ani and external anal sphincter
- sensation to urogenital triangle
- motor to muscles of the deep and superficial perineal pouches
Dorsal nerve of penis/clitoris
- sensation to glans penis or clitoris
What innervates the internal anal sphincter?
Contraction stimulated by sympathetic fibres in the superior rectal and hypogastric plexuses
Contraction inhibited by parasympathetic innervation
What innervates the external anal sphincter?
Inferior rectal nerve
From pudendal nerve
When does the anterior neuropore close?
When does the posterior neuropore close?
What happens if the anterior neuropore fails to close?
Anencephaly = baby is born without parts of the brain and skull
Encephalopcele = herniation of brain and meminges outside the skull
How can anencephaly be detected?
Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein will be raised
What happens if the posterior neuropore fails to close?
Spina bfida occulta = mild form where there is a small hair tuft or birth mark
Spina bfida cystica
- meningocele = sac contains meninges and CSF
- myelomeningocele = sac contains meninges, CSF and nerves and spinal cord
What vitamin reduces rates of neural tube defects?
What is formed by pharyngeal arch 1?
Muscles of mastication
Maxilla, mandible, zygomatic, temporal, palatine, vomer
What is formed by pharyngeal arch 2?
Muscles of facial expression
Lesser horn of hyoid
What is formed by pharyngeal arch 3?
Greater horn of hyoid
What is formed by pharyngeal arch 4?
Muscles of the soft palate
Muscles of the pharynx
What is formed by pharyngeal arch 5?
Upper oesophageal muscle
What is formed by pharyngeal pouch 1?
Lining of the auditory tube and inner ear
What is formed by pharyngeal pouch 2?
What is formed by pharyngeal pouch 3?
Inferior parathyroid gland
What is formed by pharyngeal pouch 4?
Superior parathyroid gland
What is formed by pharyngeal membrane 1?
What forms the thyroid gland?
Endodermal lining of the primitive foregut
Sensation to anterior 2/3 of the tongue
Somatic = V3 lingual nerve
Taste = chorda tympani of CN VII
Sensation to posterior 1/3 of the tongue
Which arches form the tongue
Anterior 2/3 = 1
Posterior 1/3 = 2-4
What forms the intermaxillary segment and what does it form?
Medial nasal prominence
Forms the philtrum of the lip, palate and upper 4 incisors
How is the nasolacrimal duct formed?
By the fusion of the lateral nasal prominece and the maxillary prominence
What causes a cleft lip?
Failure of fusion of the medial nasal prominence and maxillary prominence
What causes an anterior cleft palate?
Failure of the palatine shelves to fuse with the primary palate
What causes a posterior cleft palate?
Failure of the palatine shelves to fuse with each other
What causes a bifid nose?
Failure of the medial nasal prominences to fuse with each other
What causes an oblique cleft?
Failure of the lateral nasal and maxillary prominences to fuse
What does the heart start to beat?
What does the truncus arteriosus form?
What does the bulbis cordis form?
Smooth parts of the ventricles
What does the primitive ventricle form?
What does the primitive atria form?
What does the sinus venosus form?
Coronary sinus and smooth atria
What does the ureteric bud give rise to?
Ureters, renal pelvis, major and minor calyces, collecting ducts
What does the metanephric mesoderm give rise to?
DCT, loop of Henle, PCT, Bowman's capsule
What is the difference between omphalocele and gastrochisis?
Omphalocele/exomphalos = gut contents herniate into umbilicus so are inside a sac of peritoneum
Gastrochisis = herniation of bowel through a weakness in the anterior abdominal wall with no covering of gut contents
What level does the common iliac artery bifurcate?
Which arteries from the internal iliac exit the pelvis?
Superior and inferior gluteal
What is left of the umbilical artery?
Superior vesical arteries
Supplies the superior bladder
What does the inferior vesical artery supply?
Only in males
What does the vaginal artery supply?
Some of the rectum
GVAs in the lower body
Thorax and abdomen = sympathetic via T5-L2
Pelvic = parasympathetic via S2-4
Where is the pelvic pain line?
Most of the uterus and top of the bladder --> abdomen
Base of the uterus, cervix, vagina, most of the bladder and urethra --> pelvic