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Flashcards in HD anatomy Deck (80):
1

What forms the pelvic brim?

Pubic symphysis
Pectineal line of superior pubic ramus
Arcuate line of ilium
Sacral promonotory

2

Border of greater sciatic foramen

Superior = anterior sacroiliac joint
Anterolaterally = greater sciatic notch
Posteromedially = sacrotuberous ligament
Inferior = sacrospinous ligament

3

What passes through the greater sciatic foramen?

Above piriformis
- superior gluteal vessels + nerve

Below piriformis
- sciatic nerve
- inferior gluteal vessels + nerve
- pudendal nerve
- internal pudendal vessels
- posterior femoral cutaneous nerve

4

Borders of the lesser sciatic foramen

Anterior = ischial tuberosoty
Superior = sacrospinous ligament
Posterior = sacrotuberous ligament

5

What passes through the lesser sciatic foramen?

Pudendal nerve
Internal pudendal vessels
Obturator internus

6

What passes through the obturator foramen?

Obturator artery, vein, nerve

7

Superior gluteal nerve

L4-S1
Gluteus medius and minimus

8

Inferior gluteal nerve

L5-S2
Gluteus maximus

9

Sciatic nerve

L4-S3

10

Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve

S1-3
Sensation to posterior thigh and leg and some of the perineum

11

Pudendal nerve

S2-4
Skeletal muscles of the perineum
External sphincters
Levator ani + coccygeus
Sensation to most of the perineum

12

Blood supply to the rectum

Superior = IMA
Middle = IIA
Inferior = pudendal

13

Venous drainage of the rectum

Superior --> HPV
Middle --> IVC
Inferior --> IVC

14

Posterior division of internal iliac

Iliolumbar
Lateral sacral
Superior gluteal

15

Anterior division of internal iliac

Umbilical
Obturator
Inferior vesical
Uterine --> vaginal
Middle rectal
Internal pudendal

16

Ovarian artery

From abdominal aorta
At L2
Crosses external iliac at pelvic brim
Enters suspensory ligament

17

Parts of the fallopian tube

Fimbrae
Infundibulum
Ampulla
Isthmus

18

Supports of the uterus

Anterior = pubocervical ligament
Lateral = transverse cardinal ligament
Posterior = uterosacral ligament

19

Lymphatic drainage of the female pelvic organs

Main pelvic viscera --> internal iliac nodes --> lumbar trunks
Ovaries and fallopian tubes --> lateral aortic nodes

20

What attaches to the perineal body in females?

External anal sphincter
Bulbospongiosus
Superficial and deep transverse perineal muscles
Anterior fibres of levator ani
External urinary sphincter

21

Spinal anaesthesia

Agent injected into CSF at the L3/4 level
Complete anesthesia from the waist down

22

Caudal epidural block

Catheter allowing anaesthetic to be applied to S2-4 nerve roots
Cervix, vagina, birth canal, pelvic floor and perineum anaesthetised
Lower limbs and uterine body not anaesthetised

23

Pudendal nerve block

Agent injected around the peripheral nerve
Only inferior vagina and perineum anaesthetised

24

Layers of the spermatic cord

Internal spermatic fascia
Cremaster muscle and its fascia
External spermatic fascia

25

Contents of the spermatic cord

Vas deferens + artery
Testicular artery + vein
Cremasteric artery + vein
Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve
Sympathetic and visceral afferents
Lymphatics

26

Borders of the inguinal triangle

Inguinal ligament
Inferior epigastric vessels
Lateral border of rectus abdominus

27

Which side does varicocele occur on?

Left side

28

What is the main blood supply to the vas deferens?

Superior vesical artery

29

Alpha blocker

Tamsulosin

30

5a reductase inhibitor

Finasteride

31

Muscles of the scrotum

Both supples by genital branch of GF nerve (L1-2)
Dartos
- temperature regulation
- corrugated appearance
- smooth muscle
Cremaster
- skeletal muscle
- between the internal and external spermatic fascia
- arises from the internal oblique musculature
- involved in temperature regulation

32

What innervates the skin of the scrotum?

Genital branch of GF nerve (L1-2)
Anterior scrotal nerves from ilioinguinal nerve (L1)
Posterior scrotal nerves from perineal nerve from the pudendal nerve (S2-4)
Perineal branches of the posterior femoral cutaenous nerve (S1-3)

33

Arteries of the penis

Dorsal artery of the penis
Deep arteries of the penis
Bulbourethral artery

34

3 branches of the pudendal nerve

Inferior rectal
- sensation to anal triangle
- motor to levator ani and external anal sphincter
Perineal
- sensation to urogenital triangle
- motor to muscles of the deep and superficial perineal pouches
Dorsal nerve of penis/clitoris
- sensation to glans penis or clitoris

35

What innervates the internal anal sphincter?

Contraction stimulated by sympathetic fibres in the superior rectal and hypogastric plexuses
Contraction inhibited by parasympathetic innervation

36

What innervates the external anal sphincter?

Inferior rectal nerve
From pudendal nerve

37

When does the anterior neuropore close?

Day 25

38

When does the posterior neuropore close?

Day 27

39

What happens if the anterior neuropore fails to close?

Anencephaly = baby is born without parts of the brain and skull
Encephalopcele = herniation of brain and meminges outside the skull

40

How can anencephaly be detected?

Ultrasound
Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein will be raised

41

What happens if the posterior neuropore fails to close?

Spina bfida occulta = mild form where there is a small hair tuft or birth mark
Spina bfida cystica
- meningocele = sac contains meninges and CSF
- myelomeningocele = sac contains meninges, CSF and nerves and spinal cord

42

What vitamin reduces rates of neural tube defects?

Folic acid

43

What is formed by pharyngeal arch 1?

Muscles of mastication
Maxilla, mandible, zygomatic, temporal, palatine, vomer
Malleus incus

44

What is formed by pharyngeal arch 2?

Muscles of facial expression
Styloid process
Lesser horn of hyoid
Stapes

45

What is formed by pharyngeal arch 3?

Stylopharyngeus
Greater horn of hyoid

46

What is formed by pharyngeal arch 4?

Muscles of the soft palate
Muscles of the pharynx
Cricothyorid
Laryngeal cartilage

47

What is formed by pharyngeal arch 5?

Laryngeal muscles
Upper oesophageal muscle
Laryngeal cartilage

48

What is formed by pharyngeal pouch 1?

Lining of the auditory tube and inner ear

49

What is formed by pharyngeal pouch 2?

Palatine tonsil

50

What is formed by pharyngeal pouch 3?

Inferior parathyroid gland
Thymus

51

What is formed by pharyngeal pouch 4?

Superior parathyroid gland

52

What is formed by pharyngeal membrane 1?

Tympanic membrane

53

What forms the thyroid gland?

Endodermal lining of the primitive foregut

54

Sensation to anterior 2/3 of the tongue

Somatic = V3 lingual nerve
Taste = chorda tympani of CN VII

55

Sensation to posterior 1/3 of the tongue

CN IX

56

Which arches form the tongue

Anterior 2/3 = 1
Posterior 1/3 = 2-4

57

What forms the intermaxillary segment and what does it form?

Medial nasal prominence
Maxillary prominence
Forms the philtrum of the lip, palate and upper 4 incisors

58

How is the nasolacrimal duct formed?

By the fusion of the lateral nasal prominece and the maxillary prominence

59

What causes a cleft lip?

Failure of fusion of the medial nasal prominence and maxillary prominence

60

What causes an anterior cleft palate?

Failure of the palatine shelves to fuse with the primary palate

61

What causes a posterior cleft palate?

Failure of the palatine shelves to fuse with each other

62

What causes a bifid nose?

Failure of the medial nasal prominences to fuse with each other

63

What causes an oblique cleft?

Failure of the lateral nasal and maxillary prominences to fuse

64

What does the heart start to beat?

Day 22

65

What does the truncus arteriosus form?

Outflow tract

66

What does the bulbis cordis form?

Smooth parts of the ventricles

67

What does the primitive ventricle form?

Trabeculated ventricles

68

What does the primitive atria form?

Trabeculated atria

69

What does the sinus venosus form?

Coronary sinus and smooth atria

70

What does the ureteric bud give rise to?

Ureters, renal pelvis, major and minor calyces, collecting ducts

71

What does the metanephric mesoderm give rise to?

DCT, loop of Henle, PCT, Bowman's capsule

72

What is the difference between omphalocele and gastrochisis?

Omphalocele/exomphalos = gut contents herniate into umbilicus so are inside a sac of peritoneum
Gastrochisis = herniation of bowel through a weakness in the anterior abdominal wall with no covering of gut contents

73

What level does the common iliac artery bifurcate?

L5/S1

74

Which arteries from the internal iliac exit the pelvis?

Superior and inferior gluteal
Internal pudendal

75

What is left of the umbilical artery?

Superior vesical arteries
Supplies the superior bladder

76

What does the inferior vesical artery supply?

Only in males
Inferior bladder
Prostate
Seminal vesicle

77

What does the vaginal artery supply?

Vagina
Inferior bladder
Some of the rectum

78

GVAs in the lower body

Thorax and abdomen = sympathetic via T5-L2
Pelvic = parasympathetic via S2-4

79

Where is the pelvic pain line?

Most of the uterus and top of the bladder --> abdomen
Base of the uterus, cervix, vagina, most of the bladder and urethra --> pelvic

80

Lymphatic drainage of the female pelvis

Uterus --> internal iliac
Ovary --> para-aortic
Vulva --> superficial inguinal nodes (horizontal nodes)