HD, men's, sexual and women's health Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HD, men's, sexual and women's health Deck (39):
1

Whats the central zone surround?

Ejaculatory duct

2

What does the transitional zone surround?

Urethra

3

Which zone is affected by carcinoma?

Peripheral

4

Which zone is affected by BPH?

Transitional

5

Tamsulosin

Alpha 1 blocker
Relaxes smooth muscle to make urination easier

6

Finasteride

5a reductase inhibitor
Reduces testosterone --> DHT
Reduced proliferation or prostatic cells

7

What surgery for BPH can be performed?

TUPR
Open prostatectomy
Laser ablation
High energy ultrasound therapy

8

Which side do indirect inguinal hernias most commonly occur on?

Right

9

How does parasympathetic outflow lead to erection?

Release on NO
Activation of guanylate cyclase
GTP --> cGMP
Smooth muscle relaxation
Enlarged lacunar spaces
Engorgement of blood
Blockage of venous return
Increased pressure
Rigidity
Erection

10

What chemical breaks down cGMP

PDE-5

11

Sildenafil

PDE-5 inhibitor
Helps maintain erection
Relies upon working nerves to initially activate parasympathetic outflow

12

What is a penile prosthesis?

Inflatable tube replaces corpora cavernosum
Pump in scrotum
Can fill with fluid to cause rigidity

13

Peyronie's disease

Scar tissue formation of the tunica albuginea
Results in a misshaped penis
Can be painful in intercourse
Treated by stretching and massage, topical verapamil and surgery

14

What is varicocele?

Abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform veins

15

Which side does varicocele occur on and why?

Left
Testicular vein drains to left renal vein at an angle

16

How is varicocele treated?

Embolisation
Surgery

17

How can varicocele cause infertility?

Increased temperature of the testes
Makes spermatogenesis less effective

18

Most common STIs in men

Chlamydia
Genital warts
Gonorrhoea
Herpes
Syphilis

19

Most common STIs in women

Chlamydia
Genital warts
Herpes
Gonorrhoea
Syphilis

20

What pathogens causes chlamydia?

Chlamydia trachomatis
Gram negative
Intracellular

21

What do serovars L of chlamydia cause?

Lymphgranuloma venerum
Buboes/abscesses
Proctitis

22

What is neonatal chlamydia?

Conjunctivitis
Pneumonia

23

How is chlamydia treated

Azithromycin
Doxycycline

24

What are the complications of chlamydia?

Infertility
Reactive arthritis

25

Which strains of HPV causes cancer?

16, 88, 31, 33

26

Which strains of HPV causes genital warts?

6, 11

27

How are genital warts treated?

Topical imiquimod
Cryotherapy

28

Pathogen for gonorrhoea

Neisseria gonorrhoea
Gram negative diplococci

29

Neonatal gonorrhoea

Conjunctivitis

30

Complications of gonorrhoea

Infertility
Septic arthritis
Blindness
Septicaemia

31

Treatment of gonorrhoea

Ceftriaxone

32

Herpes 1 vs 2

1 = oral
2 = genital

33

Where does herpes often hide in latency?

Trigeminal ganglion
Sacral ganglion

34

How is herpes treated?

Acyclovir

35

What is the pathogen in syphilis?

Treponema pallidum
Spirochaete
Gram negative

36

What is primary syphilis?

Primary infection
Priary chancre
Highly infectious
Serology often negative

37

What is secondary syphilis?

4-10 weeks after primary infection
Rash (especially palms and soles of feet)
Generalised lymphadenopathy
Condyloma lata (wart like lesions)
Highly infectious
Serology positive

38

What is tertiary syphilis?

3-15 years after initial infection
Not infectious
Gummatous --> tumour like balls of inflammation
Neurosyphilis --> stroke, dementia, seizures
Cardiovascular --> aneurysms

39

Congenital syphilis

Often assymptomatic at birth
Go on to develop hepatosplenomegly, rash, fever, rhinitis and neurosyphilis