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Flashcards in BB psychiatry Deck (26):
1

Structural changes in depression

Decreased metabolism in subgenual prefrontal cortex
Decreased hippocampal volume

2

Why do antidepressants have a delay of action?

Due to changes in autoreceptors
Inhibiting monoamine reuptake increases autorecepotr activation, reducing neurone firing rate
During the first few weeks, these autoreceptors become desensitised
Neurones return to their normal firing rate
Normal firing rate + inhibit reuptake = increased levels in synapse --> full efficacy

3

Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome

Insomnia
Anxiety
Nausea
Headaches
Electric shock sensations

4

Garcia effect

Avoid food because of past unpleasant experience

5

Unconditioned stimulus

Stimulus that already elicits a response

6

Unconditioned response

Response that doesn't have to be learned

7

Conditioned stimulus

Previously neutral stimulus

8

Conditioned response

Learned response stimulated by CS

9

Psychological treatments that use classic conditioning

Aversion therapy
Systematic desensitisation
Flooding

10

Positive reinforcer

Reward following behaviour
Increases the behaviour

11

Negative reinforcer

Removal of negative stimulus with behaviour
Increases behaviour

12

Positive punishment

Application of an unpleasant stimulus

13

Negative punsihment

Removal of a pleasant stimulus

14

Neurobiology of classic conditioning

Amygdala and LTP

15

Neurobiology of operant conditioning

Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens

16

Pain gate open

Noxious stimuli
Anxiety
Tension
Focus on pain

17

Pain gain closed

Analgesia
Pleasure
Relaxation
Distraction
Counter stimulation --> TENS, rubbing, acupuncture

18

NT systems in pain, addiction, depression

Serotonin
NA
DA
Opioids

19

Positive symptoms of schizophrenia

Hallucinations
Delusions
Agitation
Disorganised behaviour
Catatonia

20

Negative symptoms of schizophrenia

Introversion
Apathy
Self neglect
Low self esteem

21

Cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia

Poor memory
Poor attention
Executive dysfunction

22

Genetics in schizophrenia

Dysbindin
BDNF
COMT
DISC1
Neuregulin 1

23

Testing frontal lobe function

Wisconsin card sorting test

24

Structural changes in schizophrenia

Larger ventricles
Smaller mesial temporal lobe
Decreased blood flow to prefrontal cortex (executive function dysfunction)
Increased blood flow to thalamus and cerebellum

25

Neuroleptic malignancy syndrome

Rare complication of antipsychotic use
Autonomic instability
Hyperpyrexia
Rigidity
Confusion
Tremor

26

Tarditive dyskinesia

Irreversible complication
Involuntary movements such as lip smacking, tongue thrusting, grimacing, chewing