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Flashcards in beef production lec 9 and 10 Deck (44):
1

what animals are most at risk of internal parasites and why

• 6-12mths of critical for CMW
• older cows built resistant

2

what is the potential gain of drenching

 potential gain of $120 to drench
• need to gain 8.2kg to break even

3

when should cattle be first drenched

 drench at weaning
• and move to new worm free pasture- increase weight gain by 30-60 kg

4

what are the 2 types of stomach worms and what do they cause

• stomach worm (ostetargo)
o cause scouring and weight loss
o Type I
 typical winter /spring problem
 ◦Poor growth rates + scouring in most young animals
o Type II
 Larvae inhibit (lay dormant in intestines) from mid-August on
 Resume around autumn break
 Severe weight loss in few animals

5

what are the 2 main internal parasites

stomach worms and liver fluke

6

which animals are most at risk of liver fluke

more coastal regions in summer
- increased grazing pressure, eating lower to ground

o Younger cattle <3yrs most at risk

important to test for- makesure present and not resistant to current practises

7

what are the 2 main external parasites

 Lice
• Rarely economic to treat
• Maybe in severe stress environments
 Cattle Tick
• Spread disease, tick fever.
• Restricted to Nth Aust, treated by dips,vaccine

8

which animals most at risk of internal parasites

 at risk
• Age
o Under 20mths
• Under stress
o Nutrition (drought)
o Lactating, esp 1st calf heifers
• Bulls
o drench <3 months to joining

9

how are internal parasites managed

 management
• long rest of paddocks
o conserve for forage
o short rotation
• grazing
o above ground level (less access to worms)
o use species mix

10

what are the 5 clostridial diseases controlled by 5 in 1

o anaerobic bacteria
o 5 in 1 vaccine prevents
 Black Leg
 Black disease
 Tetanus
 Enterotoxaemia (pulpy kidney)
 Malignant oedema

11

what is botulism

o clostridial disease
 more in north
 not covered in 5 in 1, developing vaccine

12

what are 3 repro associated diseases

pestivirus, leptospirosis, vbrosis

13

what is leptospirosis

o leptospirosis
 causes abortion and sickness
 zoonotic
 covered in 7 in 1

14

what is vibrosis

o vibrosis
 campylobacter bacteria
 causes infertility
 46% of beef herds with fertility problems
 bulls remain infected
• treat by vibrio vaccinating bulls

15

what is pestivirus and how is it managed

 Pestivirus
o causes
 repro loss, abortion, deformed calves
• subsequent calves persistently infected can use to develop resistance in herd
 ill thrift
 respiratory diseases
 supresses immunity
o management
 test, identify carriers to sell
 vaccinate 80 % effective

16

what are 2 common nutritional/metabolic conditions

bloat, grass tetany

17

what is bloat and how is it managed

o bloat
 cause
• grass and frothy bloat
• associated with lush legumes,
• gas build up
 management
• treat orally, prevention better
o ensures up to date
• in on new paddock, make sure already have full belly so don’t gorge
o transition feeding
• mixed pasture best
• identify ‘risky’ pastures

18

what is grass tetany and how is it managed

o grass tetany
 cause
• low blood Mg
o pasture with high K
 interferes with Mg absorption
 from fertiliser
 management
• feed high in Mg
o clovers
• Mg supplement prevention
o causemag
• autumn calving herds
o provide cows (4 yrs +) with clover/legumes dominated
 provide mixed pastures
o provide salt + MG sup+hay
o switch calving time

19

what is pinkeye and how can it be managed

 Pink eye
o cause
 associated with dust and flies, long grass and bacteria
 young calves weaned high risk
• dust and low immune system
o management
 vaccine or treat with ointment
• only affective if treating right bacteria
 sprinklers in yards
 good nutrition

20

what is BRD and what are its signs

 bovine respiratory diseases (BRD)
o cause
 more in feedlots
 multi-causal
• stressors, compromised immunity, viruses, bacteria
• secondary thing to supressed immunity
o signs
 mild cases
• discharge from nose and eyes
• fever, coughing, weight loss
 severe cases
• fatal pneumonia
• off feed, reluctant to move, difficulty breathing

21

how can diseases be managed

drenching and vaccination

22

what can drench be used to control

stomach worms, live fluke

23

how can a vaccination program be used

o vaccination program
 5 in 1 ($.50 a dose), 7 in 1 ($1.20 a dose)
 2 doses at 6-8 weeks and at weaning
 vibrio
 pestivirus
 breeding cows
• before calving
 bulls
• annual vibrio booster
 young cattle
• steers, 5 in 1 booster at start of joining

24

what are 5 things to consider when managing during a drought

o plan for each stage
o Pasture types that are drought resistant
o Water supply
o Financial reserves
o Off farm investments
o Government financial assistance
o Farm design
o Critical survival weight
o Nutritional requirements
o Alternative sources of feed and chemical residues

25

how can a dry period be prepared for

- preparing for dry periods
o fodder conservation
 utilise spring flush
o Early drought action plan
 conserve, sell stock
o Plan your economic survival!
 when in peak debt, have loan reserve so can still borrow
o Consider past events
 crop, replace stock sheep to cows

26

what are 6 things to actions for a drought

o ID main decisions
 Eg. Opportunities such as – leasing land, replacing stock with more hardy animals(goats), changing breeds.
o Act quickly to reduce risk
 I.e. sell cull stock in good condition while the market is still strong
 sell early
• reduce SR to conserve pasture
o Assess your position
 Stock, finance, feed
o Make sound livestock decisions
 +ve cash flow
 make sure all drenched and vaccinated
o Keep you options open
 ability to sell
o Stay productive: best done by reducing grazing numbers
 Sale
 Agistment
 Culling
 Lot feeding

27

what is the drought impact on animals

- drought effect on animals
o CS –CMW
 fertility of cows and subsequent income
o Early weaning
o early sale of fat cattle
o Cull non-productive cows (preg test).

28

what is drought impact on pasture/soil

- drought effect on soil
o Pastures/Soil
o Consider erosion control
o Resting paddocks
o Maintain fertility + pasture composition

29

what is the option of confinement feeding

o Confinement feeding
 create mini feedlot
 allows rest of property to be rested
 only have to resew one paddock

30

what actions should be undertaken during early drought

o Selective and progressive reduction of stock
 worst first, pregnant animals, aged cows and steers, finally sell breeding cow herd
o Purchase feed early – before prices rise.
 need plenty of dry feed and protein
o lot feeding
 some income
o agistment and leasing
 potential costs, distance to travel, disease etc
o sell all stock
 loose production but avoid maintenance costs
o CANNOT DO NOTHING

31

what actions should be undertaken during a full drought

o critical min weight- when cattle cannot afford to lose any more weight
o supplements are insufficient to maintain weight
o Review your program
 Feed budget
 Resources required (finance, labour equipment)
 Monthly costing

32

what is a critical minimum weight what is the problem with reaching C min W

 critical min weight
 body reserves nearly depleted
• have to feed lots before change
• better off maintain BCS 2

• british breeds med maturity
• Weaners - 150 kg
• Yearlings – 225kg
• Adult dry stock – 300kg
• breeders – 350kg

33

how can animals be prepared for full hand feeding

• drench, vaccinate
• parasites, deficiencies
• low stress
• e.g. dehorn early
• potentially delay joining
• better off selling
• preg test
• monitor
• calves
• maintain growth of .2kg/day
 prevents future repro and growth problems
• troughs
• feed/ water
• sufficient space
• transition feeds

34

what is transition feeding and how is it done

• transition feeds
• increase by .5kg/day
• start high hay low grain
 decrease hay increase grain over time
• ideally feed daily

35

what is the advantage of feeding grains

• grains
 low in Ca
• add limestone
 higher risk of acidosis
 most economical
- high energy

36

what is the advantage of molasses

• molasses
 carrier for minerals andproteins
 high in energy
• 70% ME of grains
 feed with fiber

37

when would a protein meal be used

• Protein meals
 Special case feeding e.g. young stock
 Too expensive to feed in large quantities

38

what is a prepared ration

• Prepared feed
 Cattle nuts
 ME slightly lower than grain
 Convenient but expensive

39

what is the nutritional value of hay

• Hay
 Lucerne / good quality cereal hay are adequate
 3kg = 2kg grain
 Can be too fibrous and limit energy intake

40

what is the advantage of silage

• Silage
 Good for self feeder
 Lucerne and clover Silage have higher CP
 Most have comparable ME (DM basis)
 DM varies from 15-50%

41

when is the nutritonal content of scrub

• Scrub
 Similar nutritive value to poor quality hay
 Adequate protein and ME
 Deficient in P and S
 Best for dry stock
 Spray with molasses to make attractive?

42

what is the potential problem when feeding by products

• By-products
 Eg. Cotton trash, cotton seed hulls
 Low in ME and CP
 Provide some assistance to growth or roughage in a feedlot
• Beware Chemical residues
 Other by-products
 Apple pulp, citrus pulp, plenty of others

43

what is creep feeding and when is it used

 supplementing the diet of young livestock, by offering feed to animals who are still nursing
 want to wean 90 days at 90kg
 feed for growth
• requires high protein (expensive)
 over 5 months
• add protein
 2-5 months
• calf pellets balanced
 under 2 months
• wean only if cow at risk
• need milk replacers

44

what are the DPI's recommendations for drought management

- Reminders – DPI NSW
o decide early review them regularly.
o Paddocks with poor water grazed first.
o routine procedures for maintaining animal health, particularly drenching against worms.
o Wean calves – feeding cows with calves is expensive.
o Consider changing from hay to grain – cost hay against grain.
o Pregnancy test
o Condition score your stock.
o Mouth older stock.
o Assess the structural soundness
o Cull stock