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Flashcards in beef production lec 9 and 10 Deck (44):

what animals are most at risk of internal parasites and why

• 6-12mths of critical for CMW
• older cows built resistant


what is the potential gain of drenching

 potential gain of $120 to drench
• need to gain 8.2kg to break even


when should cattle be first drenched

 drench at weaning
• and move to new worm free pasture- increase weight gain by 30-60 kg


what are the 2 types of stomach worms and what do they cause

• stomach worm (ostetargo)
o cause scouring and weight loss
o Type I
 typical winter /spring problem
 ◦Poor growth rates + scouring in most young animals
o Type II
 Larvae inhibit (lay dormant in intestines) from mid-August on
 Resume around autumn break
 Severe weight loss in few animals


what are the 2 main internal parasites

stomach worms and liver fluke


which animals are most at risk of liver fluke

more coastal regions in summer
- increased grazing pressure, eating lower to ground

o Younger cattle <3yrs most at risk

important to test for- makesure present and not resistant to current practises


what are the 2 main external parasites

 Lice
• Rarely economic to treat
• Maybe in severe stress environments
 Cattle Tick
• Spread disease, tick fever.
• Restricted to Nth Aust, treated by dips,vaccine


which animals most at risk of internal parasites

 at risk
• Age
o Under 20mths
• Under stress
o Nutrition (drought)
o Lactating, esp 1st calf heifers
• Bulls
o drench <3 months to joining


how are internal parasites managed

 management
• long rest of paddocks
o conserve for forage
o short rotation
• grazing
o above ground level (less access to worms)
o use species mix


what are the 5 clostridial diseases controlled by 5 in 1

o anaerobic bacteria
o 5 in 1 vaccine prevents
 Black Leg
 Black disease
 Tetanus
 Enterotoxaemia (pulpy kidney)
 Malignant oedema


what is botulism

o clostridial disease
 more in north
 not covered in 5 in 1, developing vaccine


what are 3 repro associated diseases

pestivirus, leptospirosis, vbrosis


what is leptospirosis

o leptospirosis
 causes abortion and sickness
 zoonotic
 covered in 7 in 1


what is vibrosis

o vibrosis
 campylobacter bacteria
 causes infertility
 46% of beef herds with fertility problems
 bulls remain infected
• treat by vibrio vaccinating bulls


what is pestivirus and how is it managed

 Pestivirus
o causes
 repro loss, abortion, deformed calves
• subsequent calves persistently infected can use to develop resistance in herd
 ill thrift
 respiratory diseases
 supresses immunity
o management
 test, identify carriers to sell
 vaccinate 80 % effective


what are 2 common nutritional/metabolic conditions

bloat, grass tetany


what is bloat and how is it managed

o bloat
 cause
• grass and frothy bloat
• associated with lush legumes,
• gas build up
 management
• treat orally, prevention better
o ensures up to date
• in on new paddock, make sure already have full belly so don’t gorge
o transition feeding
• mixed pasture best
• identify ‘risky’ pastures


what is grass tetany and how is it managed

o grass tetany
 cause
• low blood Mg
o pasture with high K
 interferes with Mg absorption
 from fertiliser
 management
• feed high in Mg
o clovers
• Mg supplement prevention
o causemag
• autumn calving herds
o provide cows (4 yrs +) with clover/legumes dominated
 provide mixed pastures
o provide salt + MG sup+hay
o switch calving time


what is pinkeye and how can it be managed

 Pink eye
o cause
 associated with dust and flies, long grass and bacteria
 young calves weaned high risk
• dust and low immune system
o management
 vaccine or treat with ointment
• only affective if treating right bacteria
 sprinklers in yards
 good nutrition


what is BRD and what are its signs

 bovine respiratory diseases (BRD)
o cause
 more in feedlots
 multi-causal
• stressors, compromised immunity, viruses, bacteria
• secondary thing to supressed immunity
o signs
 mild cases
• discharge from nose and eyes
• fever, coughing, weight loss
 severe cases
• fatal pneumonia
• off feed, reluctant to move, difficulty breathing


how can diseases be managed

drenching and vaccination


what can drench be used to control

stomach worms, live fluke


how can a vaccination program be used

o vaccination program
 5 in 1 ($.50 a dose), 7 in 1 ($1.20 a dose)
 2 doses at 6-8 weeks and at weaning
 vibrio
 pestivirus
 breeding cows
• before calving
 bulls
• annual vibrio booster
 young cattle
• steers, 5 in 1 booster at start of joining


what are 5 things to consider when managing during a drought

o plan for each stage
o Pasture types that are drought resistant
o Water supply
o Financial reserves
o Off farm investments
o Government financial assistance
o Farm design
o Critical survival weight
o Nutritional requirements
o Alternative sources of feed and chemical residues


how can a dry period be prepared for

- preparing for dry periods
o fodder conservation
 utilise spring flush
o Early drought action plan
 conserve, sell stock
o Plan your economic survival!
 when in peak debt, have loan reserve so can still borrow
o Consider past events
 crop, replace stock sheep to cows


what are 6 things to actions for a drought

o ID main decisions
 Eg. Opportunities such as – leasing land, replacing stock with more hardy animals(goats), changing breeds.
o Act quickly to reduce risk
 I.e. sell cull stock in good condition while the market is still strong
 sell early
• reduce SR to conserve pasture
o Assess your position
 Stock, finance, feed
o Make sound livestock decisions
 +ve cash flow
 make sure all drenched and vaccinated
o Keep you options open
 ability to sell
o Stay productive: best done by reducing grazing numbers
 Sale
 Agistment
 Culling
 Lot feeding


what is the drought impact on animals

- drought effect on animals
 fertility of cows and subsequent income
o Early weaning
o early sale of fat cattle
o Cull non-productive cows (preg test).


what is drought impact on pasture/soil

- drought effect on soil
o Pastures/Soil
o Consider erosion control
o Resting paddocks
o Maintain fertility + pasture composition


what is the option of confinement feeding

o Confinement feeding
 create mini feedlot
 allows rest of property to be rested
 only have to resew one paddock


what actions should be undertaken during early drought

o Selective and progressive reduction of stock
 worst first, pregnant animals, aged cows and steers, finally sell breeding cow herd
o Purchase feed early – before prices rise.
 need plenty of dry feed and protein
o lot feeding
 some income
o agistment and leasing
 potential costs, distance to travel, disease etc
o sell all stock
 loose production but avoid maintenance costs


what actions should be undertaken during a full drought

o critical min weight- when cattle cannot afford to lose any more weight
o supplements are insufficient to maintain weight
o Review your program
 Feed budget
 Resources required (finance, labour equipment)
 Monthly costing


what is a critical minimum weight what is the problem with reaching C min W

 critical min weight
 body reserves nearly depleted
• have to feed lots before change
• better off maintain BCS 2

• british breeds med maturity
• Weaners - 150 kg
• Yearlings – 225kg
• Adult dry stock – 300kg
• breeders – 350kg


how can animals be prepared for full hand feeding

• drench, vaccinate
• parasites, deficiencies
• low stress
• e.g. dehorn early
• potentially delay joining
• better off selling
• preg test
• monitor
• calves
• maintain growth of .2kg/day
 prevents future repro and growth problems
• troughs
• feed/ water
• sufficient space
• transition feeds


what is transition feeding and how is it done

• transition feeds
• increase by .5kg/day
• start high hay low grain
 decrease hay increase grain over time
• ideally feed daily


what is the advantage of feeding grains

• grains
 low in Ca
• add limestone
 higher risk of acidosis
 most economical
- high energy


what is the advantage of molasses

• molasses
 carrier for minerals andproteins
 high in energy
• 70% ME of grains
 feed with fiber


when would a protein meal be used

• Protein meals
 Special case feeding e.g. young stock
 Too expensive to feed in large quantities


what is a prepared ration

• Prepared feed
 Cattle nuts
 ME slightly lower than grain
 Convenient but expensive


what is the nutritional value of hay

• Hay
 Lucerne / good quality cereal hay are adequate
 3kg = 2kg grain
 Can be too fibrous and limit energy intake


what is the advantage of silage

• Silage
 Good for self feeder
 Lucerne and clover Silage have higher CP
 Most have comparable ME (DM basis)
 DM varies from 15-50%


when is the nutritonal content of scrub

• Scrub
 Similar nutritive value to poor quality hay
 Adequate protein and ME
 Deficient in P and S
 Best for dry stock
 Spray with molasses to make attractive?


what is the potential problem when feeding by products

• By-products
 Eg. Cotton trash, cotton seed hulls
 Low in ME and CP
 Provide some assistance to growth or roughage in a feedlot
• Beware Chemical residues
 Other by-products
 Apple pulp, citrus pulp, plenty of others


what is creep feeding and when is it used

 supplementing the diet of young livestock, by offering feed to animals who are still nursing
 want to wean 90 days at 90kg
 feed for growth
• requires high protein (expensive)
 over 5 months
• add protein
 2-5 months
• calf pellets balanced
 under 2 months
• wean only if cow at risk
• need milk replacers


what are the DPI's recommendations for drought management

- Reminders – DPI NSW
o decide early review them regularly.
o Paddocks with poor water grazed first.
o routine procedures for maintaining animal health, particularly drenching against worms.
o Wean calves – feeding cows with calves is expensive.
o Consider changing from hay to grain – cost hay against grain.
o Pregnancy test
o Condition score your stock.
o Mouth older stock.
o Assess the structural soundness
o Cull stock