dairy production lec 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in dairy production lec 9 Deck (15):

what is the goal mortality rate

o Raise healthy calves with < 5% mortality.


what is the weaning weight

o Wean calves at 65-100kg depending on operation.


when does weaning occur

12-14 weeks


what is HACCP

o hazard analysis critical control points
o identifies problems and measures to stop them
o relies on knowledge and monitoring


what BCS should the dam be in



how should the dam be prepared

• BCS 2.75/5
• parasite control and vaccination
• transition period
o prevent subclinical and clinical milk fever


what should the calving environment be and where can diseases occur in the calf

clean, little faeces, dry (out of mud)

• disease through mouth, umbilical and lungs


what are the birth management strategies

 Birth Management
• observation of calving
• difficulties below 15%, still born <5%
• everything recorded
• disinfect umbilical cord


how is calf health managed

• need good quality colostrum 10% LW in first 6 HOURS
o is risk associated with feeding colostrum
• quality, quantity, quickly
- passive transfer


what is good housing

 Housing Environment
• good housing to decrease disease
• clean, dry, protected, ventilation, isolated from adult cows
• all in all out best


how can disease be managed

• rapid ID and response
• high cases= inappropriate management
• high mortality= inappropriate treatment
• vaccination and worming
o doesn’t cover everything


when can a calf be weaned

• calves have adequate rumen development


how can a rumen beome developed adapted to solids

• adapted to solids
o introduce from day 2-3
o high carb- high VFA- rumen papillae grow
- roughage introduced at 1-2 weeks


how can early weaning occur successfully

o successful transition to functional rumen
o lower cost feed exists
 not worth it otherwise
 can be at 4-6 weeks
o feed a restricted liquid diet to encourage intake of DM
o 0.8-1kg of concentrate/day
• need to be weaned onto quality pasture with low disease risk
o e.g. johne’s


what are the energy and protein requirements for calves

o Rules of thumb for energy requirements of a calf
 Maintenance – 10MJ/50Kg this includes a mild amount of exercise
 Growth – 15MJ/Kg up to 100Kg Live weight

o Protein requirements
 maintenance are minimal
 increase with body weight
o Efficiency of protein gain increases with rate of gain
 Calves at 0 days require approx 24% Crude Protein
 approx 150kg only 16% crude protein