dairy production lec 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in dairy production lec 14 Deck (20):
1

why house cattle

- why house
o more overseas
o conserve topsoil
 just becomes mud bath
o meet demands of cow
o labour efficient

2

how does cow behaviour differ between pasture and housing

o cows spend more time standing, less walking

3

what are the problems associated with housing

 problems
• respiratory disease pneumonia
• housing ventilation
• build-up of ammonia
• open sheds
• lameness
• enviro- housing/laneways
• more time standing, impacts circulation
• manure
• effluent management
• mastitis

4

what is ventilation

- ventilation
o air enters, collects moisture heat and contaminants, air exits
o peak roof makes insulting layer = better
o air quality
 respiratory diseases

5

what is the dilution effect

o dilution effect
 Reduces concentrations of moisture, heat, pathogens, gases, dust, odors

6

what is the water vapour-air relationship

o Air-Water Vapour Relationship
 Relative humidity needs to be 60%-75% for animals
 Air exchange maintains humidity

7

what is good ventilation and what does it allow

o good ventilation
 Dry bedding – good for udder health
 Temperature comfort promotes dry matter intake – improves productivity
 air flow draws out warm air
 need space b/w buildings
 fans, sprinklers

8

how are calves housed

- housing calves
o different ages different systems
 individual pens more hygienic

9

what are the 4 main things to consider when housing cattle

feed
water
walking
lying

10

what needs to be considered when feeding cattle

o Feeding (silage etc, concentrates)
 sufficient space /cow
• cows bullied

11

what needs to be considered when watering cattle

o Drinking
 Fresh water
 1 trough : 15-20 cows
 2+ water locations/ group of cows
 low water depth – fresher water less contamination

12

what needs to be considered when walking cattle

o Walking/Floor
 Alleys (min. 3 metres , multiple access)
 Number of short cuts
 Ranking order in the herd
 Surface
• not too rough, does increase wear and lameness decrease slipping
• high density rubber best
• expensive, good for circulation

13

what needs to be considered when lying down cattle

 sufficient space
 encourages laying down
• design
• bedding
 doesn’t accumulate faeces
 test with knee for comfort/cleanliness

14

what are the 5 main options for bedding in housing

mattresses
rubber mats
sand
rice hulls/saw dust
straw

15

what is the advantage of using mattresses

• mattresses
 Very soft
 Good insulation
 Risk of mastitis ?
 expensive

16

what is the advantage of using rubber mats

• rubber mat
 Cheap
 Hard surface
• don’t lay on
 Good Insulation
 Risk for mastitis
• faeces on feet

17

what is the advantage of using sand

• sand
 best but expensive
 Inorganic
 Forms a comfortable shape
 Cool
 Good grip on the floor

18

what is the advantage of using straw

• straw
 Organic
• nutrient source for bacteria
 Comfortable shape
 Good insulation
 Blocks effluent system

19

what is the advantage of using rice hulls/saw dust

• saw dust/rice hulls
 Organic
 Comfortable shape
 Good insulation
 Need a lot a material

20

why would production decrease in warmer weather

cows seek shade, don't eat, don't ruminant, don't access nutrients to drive production