Behav. Sci. Addiction Flashcards Preview

Abbey MSII Unit 3 > Behav. Sci. Addiction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Behav. Sci. Addiction Deck (25):
1

intoxication

condition that follows the administration of a psychoactive substance and results in disturbances in the level of consciousness, cognition, perception, judgment, affect, or behavior, or other psychophysiological functions and responses

2

dependence

aka tolerance
a need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect OR markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance

3

a withdrawal effect signifies what?

CNS change has occurred

4

withdrawal

a group of symptoms of variable clustering and degree of severity which occur on cessation or reduction of use of a psychoactive substance that has been taken repeatedly, usually for a prolonged period and/or in high doses

5

substance use disorder

-continuing to use X despite negative personal consequences
-repeatedly unable to carry out major obligations at work, school, or home due to use of X
-recurrent use of X in physically hazardous situations
-continued use of X despite persistent or recurring social or interpersonal problems caused or made worse by use of X
-tolerance
-withdrawal
-using greater amounts or using over a longer time period than intended
-persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control use
-spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from using X
-consistent use of X despite acknowledgment of persistent or recurrent physical or psychological difficulties from using X
-cravings

6

dependence vs abuse

abuse is more psychological and dependence is more physiological (withdrawal/tolerance symptoms)

7

mild, moderate, vs severe substance use disorders

mild 2-3 criteria med; 4-5 moderate; 6-7 severe

8

alcohol effect

opens GABA-A receptor (as does benzodiazepine and barbituates)

9

alcohol intoxication
how do you treat?

anxiolysis, disinhibtion, slurred speech, ataxia, sedation/stupor, respiratory supression, coma, death
-Rx: support, restraint, protect airway, ventilate

10

alcohol withdrawl
how do you treat?

agitation, insomnia, tremor, GI upset, inc pulse, HR, BP, seizures, hallucinations, delirium, death
Rx: benzodiazepines until vital signs and withdrawal symptoms normalize

11

benzodiazepine intoxication reversal

flumazenil (does not work for alcohol or barbiturates)

12

stimulants mechanism

block dopamine reuptake, may reverse it causing more DA availability in the mesolimbic system allowing increased CNS arousal and excitability

13

effects of drugs and addictive behavior on the brain reward pathways

all act in brain limbic reward pathways to either
-enhance DA release from ventral tegmental area
-enhance DA effects in the nucleus accumbens or related structures
-involve facilitation by the amgdala
-involve loss of cortical top down control

14

what does chronic use of a drug lead to?

reward circuitry changes that promote more future drug use
-increased limbic function
-decreased prefrontal cortex PFC function

15

orbitofrontal cortex role in addiction

should suppress doing dangerous or addictive things

16

ventromedial prefrontal cortex role in addiction

should attach positive feelings to not doing dangerous things

17

dorsolateral prefrontal cortex role in addiction

should calculate the true risk/benefit ratio of doing addictive things

18

increasing addiction effect on cortical control

frontal lobe structures become less active (less glutamate) and even atrophy allowing increasing, maladaptive addictive (more DA) behaviors to occur (risk calculations are in error, emotional valence is put onto teh addictive substance and response prevention falters)

19

stimulants intoxication and treatment

elevated mood and esteem, irritability, insomnia, appetite loss, dilated pupils, racing heart, inc BP, elevated temp, hyperreflexia, psychosis, cardiac arrest, seizure
Rx: supprt and meds to reverse specific intoxication symptom

20

stimulants withdrawal

fatigue, anhedonia, depression, increased sleep, increased appetite

21

opiate mechanism

bind mu g protein receptor, cause neuronal hyperpolarization via cAMP reduction and increased K+ flux and decrease Ca++
-increases descending midbrain pain inhibitory paths

22

opiate intoxication and treatment

elevated mood, pupil constriction, respiratory suppression, gag reflex loss, low HR, BP, constipation
Rx: support, protext airway and use naloxone to reverse

23

opiates withdrawal and treatment

restless, watery eyes, YAWNING, dilated pupils, goose fles/flushing, runny nose, sneezing, inc Hr, BP, GI distress, GI cramps, muscle cramps
Rx: methadone (full agonist replacement) or buprenorphine (partial agonist replacement)

24

hallucinogens treatment (PCP esp)

sedatives better than antipsychotics for agitation due to hyperpyrexia, rhabdomyolysis

25

cannabis intoxication

elevated mood, expansive thought, sedation, pupil constriction, red conjunctiva, increased appetite, panic, paranoia