Flashcards in Behav. Sci. Psychotherapy Deck (31):
what are the 6 types of psychotherapy?
6. cognitive behavioral
what are the common factors of the psychotherapies?
1. therapeutic relationship/alliance (warmth, empathy, respect, unconditional acceptance)
2. expectation (by seeking help, one will change)
3. Hawthorne effect (improvement as a result of receiving attention)
what is psychoanalysis and psychodynamic
based on idea that unconscious conflicts are repressed and cause difficulty (aim to make unconscious conscious)
using free association, analysis of transference and resistance, dream interpretation
difference between psychoanalysis and psychodynamic
analysis is long term therapy and dynamic is shorter and focused on present
based on idea that problematic attachments early in life predispose one to develop disorders that are expressed through troubled interpersonal relationships in present
aim is to correct interpersonal difficulties
what are the four major interpersonal problems?
1. loss and grief
2. role disputes
3. role transitions
4. interpersonal deficits
what is interpersonal used to treat and how long is it?
used to treat depression and eating disorders; short term (12-16 sessions)
what is psychoanalysis/psychodynamic used to treat?
depression, anxiety, personality disorders
family systems and aim
based on the idea that an identified patient reflects dysfunction in the whole family system
aim to improve family's relationship health; the whole family is the "patient"
what are the techniques used in family systems?
normalizing boundaries and redefining blame
what is family systems used to treat?
children identified with behavior problems, families dealing with conflict, teenagers with eating disorders or substance abuse
used to treat people with common experiences, a particular disorder, or interpersonal difficulties while allowing members to learn skills, discuss own feelings, as well as provide feedback and support to others
based on learning theory
aim is to relieve symptoms by unlearning maladaptive behaviors (relearn associations)
what are behavioral techniques based on?
classical conditioning and operant conditioning including:
1. systematic desensitization
2. aversive conditioning
4. token economy ("point" and positive reinforcement)
what is behavioral used to treat?
phobias, depression, autism, psychotic disoders (token economy), ODD/ADHD
think meat powder -> salivation with tone to orient response
then tone followed by meat powder -> salivation
then ton to cause salivation
an organism learns to differentiate among similar stimuli (complementary process to stimulus generalization)
what are applications of classical conditioning?
can lead to the development of intense, irrational fears of objects or situations (phobias)
-used in addictions treatment
learning to consequences of behavior
reinforcer in instrumental/operant conditioning
a stimulus event that increases the probability that the operant behavior will occur again
(positive strengthens the response if it follows that response)
(negative has an unpleasant stimulus that -if removed - strengthens the response that removes the stimulus)
example of negative reinforcement
removing somethings that is unpleasant -say you have a headache on a boring date, date ends, you use it in future
how does delay and size of reinforcement affect instrumental/operant conditioning
the effect of a reinforcer is stronger when it comes soon after a response occurs
the larger the reinforcer, the more vigorous the behavior
what is the most effective reinforcement schedule?
variable interval - time interval that must elapse before next opportunity for reinforcement varies (for example gambling)
fixed ratio vs fixed interval in partial reinforcement schedules in instrumental/operant conditioning
fixed ratio = fixed number of responses required for reinforcement
fixed interval: fixed set of time must elapse before next opportunity for reinforcement
negative reinforcement vs punishment
negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior which punishment weakens
punishment is the presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant one following some behavior
what are the drawbacks of punishment?
-does not "erase" an undesirable habit, merely suppresses it and can produce unwanted side effects
-needs to be immediately after the response
-can become aggression, abuse
-only signals inappropriate behavior - not correct alternative
aims to replace presumed distorted appraisals with more adaptive appraisals - helps patient monitor thoughts; recognize the relations among cognition, behavior and affect; test the validity of automatic thoughts; substitute more realistic cognitions; identify and later alter schemas that predispose people to think in negative ways
what is cognitive therapy based on?
the idea that problems develop as a result of errors in thinking: want to correct errors in logic
what is cognitive therapy used to treat and how long?
depression, anxiety, eating disorders - short-term 12-18 sessions
what are the 3 major classes of CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy)
coping skills therapies, cognitive restructuring methods, problem solving therapies