Micro U3 L2. Flashcards Preview

Abbey MSII Unit 3 > Micro U3 L2. > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro U3 L2. Deck (37):
1

meningitis

inflammation of the lining of the brain (aseptic meningitis not caused by bacteria)

2

encephalitis

inflammation of brain tissues

3

meningoencephalitis

widespread infection of the meninges and brain

4

aseptic meningitis causes

viruses, fungi, TB, infections near CNS

5

MC virus for aseptic meningitis

enteroviruses

6

symptoms of aseptic meningitis

mental status remains normal, headache, fever, chills, stiff neck, also malaise, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, ab pain, rash, muscle pain, photophobia

7

how is aseptic meningitis distinguished from encephalitis?

mental status normal in meningitis

8

diagnosis of aseptic meningitis

elevated WBC in spinal fluid - NO BACTERIA

9

treatment for aseptic meningitis

supportive care (usually benign), drugs for herpesvirus, fungal, and mycobacterial infections

10

brudzinski sign

symptom of meningitis - neck so stiff that knees flex when neck is flexed

11

encephalitis incidence

infants and elderly

12

encephalitis causes

influx of immune cells to brain

13

distinguishing feature for encephalitis

intracerebral hemorrhage

14

encephalitis symptoms

mental status altered (due to increase pressure/injury), confusion, sleepiness, irritability, stumbling, also fever, headache, vomiting, photophobia, still neck

15

diagnosis of encephalitis

spinal tap = inflammation (PCR gold standard for definitive diagnosis), EEG suggestive of seizures, brain MRI/CT show inflammation/hemorrhage

16

treatment for encephalitis

supportive care and symptom relief, antivirals for herpes, anti seizure medications, anti-inflammatories, sedatives

17

prognosis for encephalitis

benign with full recovery but can also be severe and fatal

18

pathogenesis of viral CNS disease

death of neurons (cytolytic viruses), infants and elderly more susceptible, immunosuppressive, genetics, exercise increase dissemination of viruses to CNS

19

acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

postinfectious encephalitis follows viral infection 1-2 weeks - associated with measles, mumps, VZV, influenze, parainfluenza viruses, autoimmune disorder

20

Which herpes viruses can often cause meningitis (from most likely to only in immunocompromised)

HSV-2, HSV-1, VZV, CMV, EBV

21

What should herpes viruses be treated with?

acyclovir

22

MCC of sporadic viral encephalitis

HSV-1 encephalitis

23

Route of infection HSV-1 encephalitis

primary HSV-1 in oropharynx -> trigem nerve -> CNS

24

What is the hallmark for HSV-1 encephalitis diagnosis?

brain imaging: MRI shows unilateral temporal lobe abnormalities

25

How is rabies neurovirulent and how does it do it?

-infects peripheral nerves and travels to brain -> transmitted from salivary glands

26

Symptoms of rabies (what are they due to)

hydrophobia, seizures, hallucinations, paralysis, coma, death due to replication in brain

27

When does enterovirus cause disease? How? In who?

MC in summer; fecal-oral; newborns and neonates

28

picornaviruses

polio, coxsackie, echoviruses, enterovirus

29

Where does replication of picornaviruses take place? Where does it disseminate?

replicates in oropharynx and intestine (mucosal surfaces) disseminates via lymph nodes to blood and endes in skin, muscle, brain, and meninges

30

Togaviruses

VEE, EEE, WEE, rubella

31

How are toga viruses transmitted? Which cause encephalitis?

via mosquito bite usually (also birds) to skin, blood, brain - VEE, EEE, WEE

32

What are the flaviviruses that cause encephalitis?

Japanese encephalitis, west nile, st louis encepalitis, russian spring-summer, powassan virus

33

transmission of flaviviruses

mosquito or tick; more common in summer

34

Which flavivirus has a vaccine?

japanese encephalitis

35

What is the dissemination of flaviviruses?

mucosal surface -> lymph -> primary viremia (blood, liver, spleen, macrophages) -> secondary viremia (encephalitis, yellow fever, hemorrhagic fever)

36

west nile virus meningoencephalitis symptoms

less than 1% WNV infections; headache, high fever, stiff neck, disorientation, coma, tremors, seizures, paralysis

37

WNV high risk populations

cancer, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease