Flashcards in Behavioral School of Management Deck (26):
Behavioral School of Management
Looks at human relations and behavioral management theorists believe that understanding worker motivation, expectations, and conflict are crucial to increasing productivity and efficiency.
Created the Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Describes the needs of a person to be happy.
Order of Maslow's needs bottom to top
1. Physiological- fundamentals to life
2. Safety- Security of your person, employment, family, health, property
3. Love/Belonging - Family, sexual intimacy, friendship
4. Esteem - confidence, self-esteem, respect, achievement
5. Self-Actualization - morality, problem solving
Existence/Relatedness/Growth. Defined by Clayton Alderfer built off of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, but simplified needs into three larger categories.
Basically, instead of being required to fulfill needs before higher ones, it states that people will attempt to fill the highest need (growth) first, and if not possible will regress to a lower need (relatedness), and finally the lowest (existence).
Created the ERG Theory
Based on the ERG Theory, and states that if a person becomes frustrated with lack of achievement of a higher need (ie career advancements), they will regress to fulfilling a lower need (ie family relationships) in order to have 'some needs' met.
American psychologist whose work is widely recognized in business management.
Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
Two sets of factors in a workplace: Motivator Factors and Hygiene Factors. One that causes satisfaction and the other dissatisfaction
Motivator Factors in Herzberg's Two- Factor Theory
Factors such as recognition or a more impressive title, give workers happiness or motivation. However, in the absence the worker does not result in dissatisfaction. They're nice to have, but don't affect the worker if they're not present.
Hygiene Factors in Herzberg's Two- Factor Theory
Facros such as salary or job security may not produce satisfaction or happiness, but they are crucial for job satisfaction. Merely having a salary is no guarantee of employee happiness, but taking it away would certainly make them unhappy and disgruntled.
Social scientist who worked on the Hawthorne experiments. Wrote 'Management and the Worker' in 1939.
Shows a person will change their behavior if they know that they are being studied.
Fritz Roethlisberger and Elton Mayo
Created a series of studies known as Hawthorne Studies which proved the Hawthorne Effect
American psychologist who wrote the book 'The Human Side of Enterprise'. He created Theory X and Y of Motivation.
Theory X of Motivation
Believes that all employees are inherently lazy and must be supervised at all times in order to get work done. If they employees are left alone, they will avoid working if at all possible.
Theory Y of Motivation
Believes that workers 'want' to do well and accomplish goals given by management. Doesn't feel the need to constantly supervise the employees and would rather give them responsibility so that more tasks can be completed.
"Bad employees get x's on their evaluations"
Trick to remember Theory X vs Theory Y of Motivation ***be sure to know***
McClelland's Human Motivation Theory
People are motivated by the gaining of different drivers: Power, Affiliation, and Achievement
McClelland's Motivation Theory - Power
seek to win arguments, gain positions of influence, and enjoy competing for status and recognition
McClelland's Motivation Theory - Affiliation
Seeks to be liked and belong to the group. They like to collaborate rather than compete, and dislike high risk tasks.
McClelland's Motivation Theory - Achievement
Like to set high goals and achieve them. They like to work alone for personal achievement, and do not usually collaborate. They like to receive feedback from management on progress made toward their goals.
People choose specific behaviors due to the expected results. An employee's motivation to do a good job for their management based on rewards or avoidance of pain.
Created Expectancy Theory
Justice-based theories. Personal behavior is motivated by fairness. People wish to be treated fairly, and thus they will attempt to choose fair behaviors for their co-workers as well