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Flashcards in Other Theories and Theorists Deck (14):

Peter Drucker

Management consultant who worked extensively during his career for management education development. Some key ideas in management education included decentralization and simplification, the 'knowledge worker', and 'sickness of government'. he also popularized the term "Management by Objectives"


Who popularized the term "Management by Objectives"?

Peter Drucker


Management by Objectives

Goal-setting method of management in which both the managers and employees have input on the objectives set. Peter Drucker believed that if the employees were involved in the goal setting, they'd be more committed to the company/process.


Management by Exception

Idea that managers do not need to actively manage employees or process unless an exception, or deviance, from expected results occurs.


Kurt Lewin

German-American psychologist who also contributed heavily to management and leadership theory. Best known theories for management are the ideas of Force Fields, formalizing management styles, and his freeze phases.


3 Management Styles according to Kurt Lewin

Authoritarian Management
Democratic Management
Laissez-Faire Management


Authoritarian Management Style

AKA Autocratic Management. A single leader makes all management decisions.


Democratic Management Style

Decision-making power shifted to the workers and management. The majority decides the way forward with votes held.


Laissez-Faire Management Style

Primarily hands-off. The leader is there to provide advice, but most departments and workers are responsible for getting the work done and motivating themselves.


Kurt Lewin's Force Field Analysis

Looking at factors that will either help a change occur, or hinder it. If the factor will help, it is known as a 'helping force'. If it'll hinder, its a 'hindering force'


Kurt Lewin's Freeze Phases

Dealing with change management, three phases of change that are the basis for problems solving:

1. Unfreeze - people have accepted that change is needed and are ready to exit their comfort zone

2. Transition state - The change occurs

3. Refreeze - people sink back into comfort in the new position, and again become 'frozen' in their habits, and are unwilling to change


Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum Theory

Theory/model shows the relationship between how much authority the manager uses and how much freedom given to subordinates.

Spectrum goes from manager making all decisions to subordinates making all decisions (with manager's approval).


Justice View of Ethics

Morality of justice, describes how ethics and morality will affect a view of justice or fairness.



Theory of morality which focuses on the best for the majority. Greatest good for the most amount of people. Individual good or minority good is ignored.