Flashcards in Bio 1 to 4 Important Proteins Deck (29):
What is a decarboxylase?
enzyme that catalyzes the removal of carbon dioxide from a compound
ie pyruvate decarboxylase
What is a dehydrogenase?
enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by a reduction reaction that transfers one or more hydrides to an electron acceptor
ie pyruvate dehydrogenase
What is a hydrolase?
enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond
What is an isomerase?
enzyme that catalyzes structural rearrangement of a molecule
ie G6P isomerase catalyzes G6P to F6P
What is a lyase?
enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of a bond in ways other than hydrolysis and oxidation
What is an oxidase?
an enzyme that catalyzes an oxidation-reduction reaction
What is an oxidoreductase?
enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule (electron donor) to another (electron acceptor)
What is a peptidase?
hydrolyzes peptide bonds
Describe the difference between a kinase and a phosphorylase
kinase- transfers phosphate group from a donor i.e. ATP
phosphorylase- add inorganic phosphate
What is a reductase?
enzyme that catalyzes a reduction reaction
What is a translocase?
assists in moving other molecules, usually across a membrane
What is hexokinase?
phosphorylates glucose to G6P in glycolysis using a phosphate from ATP
What is phosphofructokinase?
phosphorylates F6P to F1,6 bisphosphate in glycolysis using a phosphate from ATP
What is pyruvate kinase?
catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP during glycolysis, resulting in one pyruvate and one ATP
What is the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex?
converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
produces an NADH and CO2
What is isocitrate dehydrogenase?
enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate in the citric acid cycle
produces CO2 and NADH and NADPH
What is glucose-6-phosphatase?
an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of G6P to glucose in gluconeogenesis
What is fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase?
an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of F16P to F6P in gluconeogenesis
What is pyruvate carboxylase?
an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate using ATP hydrolysis in gluconeogenesis
What is PEP carboxykinase?
an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate and CO2 using GTP hydrolysis in gluconeogenesis
What is phosphofructokinase-2?
the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of F6P to F-2,6-bisphosphate
What is fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase?
the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of F-2,6-P to F6P
What is glycogen synthase?
the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of G1P to glycogen
What is glycogen phosphorylase?
the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glycogen and Pi to G1P
What is acyl-CoA synthetase?
enzyme that catalyzes the activation of fatty acids by attaching them to CoA for beta-oxidation
What is acetyl-CoA carboxylase?
enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA (activation in the biosynthesis of fatty acids)
What is fatty acid synthase?
enzyme that catalyzes the elongation, reduction, dehydration and second reduction in biosynthesis of fatty acids
it uses NADPH in its reduction reactions
What is glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase?
enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of G6P in the pentose phosphate pathway using NADP+ (makes NADPH)