Bio 1 to 4 Important Proteins Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio 1 to 4 Important Proteins Deck (29):
1

What is a decarboxylase?

enzyme that catalyzes the removal of carbon dioxide from a compound
ie pyruvate decarboxylase

2

What is a dehydrogenase?

enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by a reduction reaction that transfers one or more hydrides to an electron acceptor
ie pyruvate dehydrogenase

3

What is a hydrolase?

enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond

4

What is an isomerase?

enzyme that catalyzes structural rearrangement of a molecule
ie G6P isomerase catalyzes G6P to F6P

5

What is a lyase?

enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of a bond in ways other than hydrolysis and oxidation

6

What is an oxidase?

an enzyme that catalyzes an oxidation-reduction reaction

7

What is an oxidoreductase?

enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule (electron donor) to another (electron acceptor)

8

What is a peptidase?

a protease
hydrolyzes peptide bonds

9

Describe the difference between a kinase and a phosphorylase

kinase- transfers phosphate group from a donor i.e. ATP
phosphorylase- add inorganic phosphate

10

What is a reductase?

enzyme that catalyzes a reduction reaction

11

What is a translocase?

assists in moving other molecules, usually across a membrane

12

What is hexokinase?

phosphorylates glucose to G6P in glycolysis using a phosphate from ATP

13

What is phosphofructokinase?

phosphorylates F6P to F1,6 bisphosphate in glycolysis using a phosphate from ATP

14

What is pyruvate kinase?

catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP during glycolysis, resulting in one pyruvate and one ATP

15

What is the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex?

converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
produces an NADH and CO2

16

What is isocitrate dehydrogenase?

enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate in the citric acid cycle
produces CO2 and NADH and NADPH

17

What is glucose-6-phosphatase?

an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of G6P to glucose in gluconeogenesis

18

What is fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase?

an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of F16P to F6P in gluconeogenesis

19

What is pyruvate carboxylase?

an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate using ATP hydrolysis in gluconeogenesis

20

What is PEP carboxykinase?

an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate and CO2 using GTP hydrolysis in gluconeogenesis

21

What is phosphofructokinase-2?

the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of F6P to F-2,6-bisphosphate

22

What is fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase?

the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of F-2,6-P to F6P

23

What is glycogen synthase?

the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of G1P to glycogen

24

What is glycogen phosphorylase?

the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glycogen and Pi to G1P

25

What is acyl-CoA synthetase?

enzyme that catalyzes the activation of fatty acids by attaching them to CoA for beta-oxidation

26

What is acetyl-CoA carboxylase?

enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA (activation in the biosynthesis of fatty acids)

27

What is fatty acid synthase?

enzyme that catalyzes the elongation, reduction, dehydration and second reduction in biosynthesis of fatty acids
it uses NADPH in its reduction reactions

28

What is glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase?

enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of G6P in the pentose phosphate pathway using NADP+ (makes NADPH)

29

What is DNA gyrase?

the enzyme that supercoils prokaryotic DNA
it also is known as topoisomerase II and relieves strain while helices unwinds double-stranded DNA