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Flashcards in Review Deck (197):
1

What is special about water?

liquid water is more dense than solid water so it is favoured at elevated pressures (freezing point is depressed at elevated pressures)

2

glycine

G

3

alanine

A

4

valine

V

5

methionine

M

6

leucine

L

7

isoleucine

I

8

proline

P

9

phenylalanine

F

10

tryptophan

W

11

serine

S

12

threonine

T

13

asparagine

N

14

glutamine

Q

15

cysteine

C

16

tyrosine

Y

17

aspartic acid

D

18

glutamic acid

E

19

histidine

H

20

arginine

R

21

lysine

K

22

Polar AAs

serine
threonine
asparagine
glutamine
cysteine
tyrosine

23

Broca's area

language production
damage causes non-fluent aphasia

24

Wernicke's area

language comprehension
damage causes fluent aphasia

25

What does an aldol condensation result in?

a beta-hydroxy carbonyl compound

26

What is the difference between non-competitive and allosteric inhibition of enzymes?

they are the same!

27

What is glycogen phosphorylase used for?

and phosphate to glycogen when breaking it DOWN

28

What kind of hormone does thyroid hormone act like?

steroid

29

What kind of hormone does epinephrine act like?

peptide

30

para long pre

pre-synaptic parasympathetic neurons are long (post are short)

31

When do gases not act ideal?

low temp and high pressure
remember: "real world is less than ideal" (pressure and volume of empty space)

32

What are ideal fluids?

incompressible and not viscous

33

xenophobia

fear of that perceived to be foreign

34

What are contemporaries?

people that lived at the SAME TIME

35

What does DNA gyrase do?

supercoils bacteria DNA

36

What is hemostasis?

stopping flow of blood (usually talking about clotting)

37

What are antagonist vs agonist drugs?

antagonist drugs inhibit something
agonist drugs activate something

38

What is anomie?

when a there is a lack of social norms, which leads to a breakdown in the connection between an individual and their community

39

What is the James-Lange theory of emotion?

physiological then emotional

40

What is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?

physiological and emotional at the same time

41

What are the "I" and the "me" in Mead's theory of identity?

I is spontaneous and autonomous
me is formed in social interactions with others

42

What is a microfilament?

actin

43

Is removing entropic penalty favorable?

yes

44

What is proactive interference?

when old memories impede new ones

45

What is retroactive interference?

when new memories impede old ones

46

What do you want in a PCR primer?

GC at both ends
high GC content

47

What is suppression?

consciously withholding memories

48

What is repression?

unconsciously withholding memories

49

What is ethnocentrism?

tendency to look at other cultures through our culture's perspective

50

What is the left side of the brain mainly used for?

linguistic abilities

51

Where does the left visual field go in the brain?

the RIGHT side

52

Which way do electric field lines point?

from positive to negative i.e. point at negative
never cross
are more dense near the the charge

53

When does a precipitate form?

when Q >Ksp

54

What are bigger positive or negative ions?

negative are larger

55

What do COOH and OH make? What is it called when it is cyclic?

ester, cyclic=lactone

56

What affects resistance?

resistivity, length, area, (temperature affects resisitivity as well)

57

Do you want a binding constant to be high? What about Km?

binding constant yes
Km no

58

What are the y and x intercepts on a Lineweaver-Burk plot? Slope?

y-int is 1/Vmax
x-int is 1/Km
slope is Km/Vmax

59

Where is OH stretching on an IR spectrum?

3200-3500

60

Where is CO stretching on an IR spectrum?

1700-1750

61

Where is CC double bond stretching on an IR spectrum?

1580-1610

62

What kind of lens do you use to correct for myopia?

diverging/concave

63

What kind of lens do you use to correct for hyperopia?

converging/convex

64

What does ultrasound use to produce images?

the doppler effect, thus you need to know the speeds and frequencies

65

When is work positive?

between 0 and 90 degrees

66

When is work negative?

between 90 and 180 degrees

67

How does work affect the potential energy of a system?

positive work done BY the system decreases Pe
positive work done ON the system increases Pe
and vice versa

68

What happens in an elastic collision?

Ke is conserved

69

What happens in an inelastic collision?

Ke is not conserved

70

What happens in a perfectly inelastic collision?

objects stick together, have the same final velocity

71

What is an electric dipole?

when electric field doesn't equal 0, but the electric potential does
creates a very strong electric field

72

What is the electric field inside a conductor?

zero

73

What do capacitors in parallel have that is the same?

voltage

74

What do capacitors in series have that is the same?

charge

75

What cause electrons to flow?

a difference in electric potential

76

What direction is I? (current)

always OPPOSITE the flow of electrons

77

What is magnetic field strength measured in?

Tesla or Gauss
10^-4 T = 1 Ga

78

Explain the right hand rule for finding Fb

positive charge
thumb along v
fingers along B
direction of Fb is coming out of palm

79

Explain the right hand rule for finding B

thumb along I
fingers curl in the direction of B

80

Which direction do magnetic field lines point?

North to South

81

What does wave speed depend on?

type and medium NOT frequency

82

Where do longitudinal waves move fastest? What is an example?

in solid
i.e. sound waves

83

Where do transverse waves move fastest?

in a vacuum
i.e. light (electromagnetic waves)

84

What does "RIP VUN" stand for?

real, inverted, positive i
virtual, upright, negative i

85

What forms from the ectoderm?

entire nervous system
pituitary glands
adrenal medulla
cornea and lens
epidermis of skin and derivatives (nails, hair, sweat glands, sensory receptors)
nasal, oral, anal epithelium

86

What forms from the mesoderm?

all muscle, bone and connective tissue
entire cardiovascular and lymphatic system, including blood
urogenital organs (kidneys, ureters, gonads, reproductive ducts)
dermis of skin

87

What forms from the endoderm?

GI tract epithelium (except mouth and anus)
GI glands (liver, pancreas etc)
respiratory epithelium
epithelial lining of urogenital organs and ducts
urinary bladder

88

What are the stages of embryogenesis?

fertilization (zygote)
cleavage (morula)
blastulation (trophoblast and inner cell mass)
gastrulation (germ layers, gastrula)
neurulation (nervous system)
parturition

89

Type I muscle fibers

slow twitch
red slow twitch/red oxidative
slow contraction
low force
many mitochondria
very dense capillaries
resistant to fatigue
hours of use

90

Type IIA muscle fibers

intermediate/fast twitch oxidative
intermediate contraction
medium force
some mitochondria
medium capillaries
medium resistance to fatigue
30 min use

91

Type IIB muscle fibers

white fast twitch
very fast contraction
high force
very few mitochondria and capillaries
low resistance to fatigue
1 min use

92

What does peptide YY do?

reduces appetite

93

What do chief cells secrete?

pepsinogen

94

What do parietal cells secrete?

HCl

95

Where is CCK secreted from?

epithelial cells in the duodenum

96

What cells have MHCI?

all nucleated cells

97

What cells have MCHII?

only antigen presenting cells (macrophages and B-cells)

98

Freud first stage

oral stage
0 to 1
erogneous zone is the mouth

99

Freud second stage

anal stage
1 to 3
erogenous zone is the anus i.e. bladder and bladder control

100

Freud third stage

phallic stage
3 to 6
erogenous zone is the genitals
adult fixation results in the Oedipus or Electra complex

101

Freud fourth stage

latency stage
6 to 12
sexual feelings are dormant

102

Freud fifth stage

genital stage
12+
sexual interests mature

103

Erikson first stage

infancy
trust vs mistrust

104

Erikson second stage

early childhood
autonomy vs shame

105

Erikson third stage

preschool age
initiative vs guilt

106

Erikson fourth stage

school age
industry vs inferiority

107

Erikson fifth stage

adolescence
identity vs role confusion

108

Erikson sixth stage

young adulthood
intimacy vs isolation

109

Erikson seventh stage

middle age
generativity vs stagnation

110

Erikson eighth stage

later life
integrity vs despair

111

explicit memory

declarative memory
memory with conscious recall
consists of episodic and semantic memory

112

implicit memory

non declarative memory
memory without conscious recall
procedural memory is a type

113

Stage 1 of sleep

light
theta waves
slow rolling eye movements
moderate activity
fleeting thoughts

114

Stage 2 of sleep

light
sleep spindle and k-complex
no eye movement
moderate activity
increased relaxation
decreased temp, heart rate and respiration

115

Stages 3 and 4 of sleep

deep
delta waves
no eye movement
moderate activity
heart and digestion slow
growth hormones secreted

116

brain waves when you're awake

beta

117

brain waves when you're drowsy

alpha

118

components of the limbic system

thalamus
hypothalamus
frontal lobe
olfactory bulb
amygdala
hippocampus
(relay station for all senses except smell)

119

Schachter-Singer theory of emotion

two-factor theory
emotion inducing stimulus gives physiological response
which leads to cognitive interpretation
and then you get behavioural response and labelling of the emotion

120

Piaget first stage

sensorimotor
0-1.5/2
stranger anxiety
experiences world directly through senses and motor movement
learns object permanence

121

Piaget second stage

preoperational
2-6/7
like to pretend play
can represent things with words and images, but use intuitive not logical reasoning
egocentrism

122

Piaget third state

concrete operational
7-11
thinks logically and performs simple mental manipulations with concrete concepts
learns conservation

123

Piaget fourth stage

formal operational
12 to adult
abstract logically
learn moral reasoning

124

Broca's area

inferior frontal gyrus of dominant hemisphere (usually left)
damaged= non fluent aphasia with intact comprehension

125

Wernicke's area

posterior superior temporal gyrus
damaged= fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension

126

Bronstad-Lowry

involves protons

127

Lewis

involves electrons

128

Arrhenius

H3O+/OH-

129

Strong acids

HClO4
H2SO4
HNO3
HCl
HBr
HI

130

TLC

non polar move the farthest, have the highest Rf

131

normal phase HPLC

nonpolar come out first

132

reverse phase HPLC

polar come out first

133

size exclusion HPLC

large come out first

134

ion exchange HPLC

same charge as resin and neutral come out first

135

gas chromatography

highly volatile come out first (low boiling point)

136

affinity chromatography

usually used to purify proteins or nucleic acids from cell lysates
solid phase with protein of interest goes to the bottom and supernatant can be decanted

137

fractional distillation

separates with similar boiling points to get rid of solid impurities

138

simple distillation

separates compounds with large boiling point differences

139

stiffness of a bond and IR

more stiff bonds vibrate at higher frequencies

140

CH

2800-3300

141

CC double

1650

142

CC triple

2200

143

OH

3200-3600

144

NH

3300-3500

145

CO

1700

146

CN

2200 (triple bond)

147

aromatic Hs

6.5-8

148

vinyl Hs

5-6

149

alkyl Hs

0-2

150

downfield

downfield is to the left
deshielded
ie acidic protons

151

thermodynamic aldol

remove from more sterically hindered

152

kinetic aldol

remove from less substituted

153

SN1

two steps

154

SN2

one step

155

Strecker synthesis

Aas using ammonium and cyanide salts

156

Gabriel-malonic ester synthesis

Aas using pthalamide and an alpha bromomalonic ester

157

where does oxidation occur?

at the anode

158

where does reduction occur?

at the cathode

159

in which direction do electrons flow?

anode to cathode

160

what is the charge on the anode?

negative for galvanic
positive for electrolytic

161

high energy bonds to make a peptide

4n

162

gram positive colour

dark purple

163

Kozak sequence

eukaryotic translation initiation sequence

164

Shine-Delgarno sequence

prokaryotic ribosome binding site

165

eukaryotic ribosome

80S
60S and 40S

166

prokaryotic ribosome

70S
50S and 30S

167

TATA box

eukaryotic promoter

168

autotroph vs auxotroph

autotroph= uses CO2 as carbon source
auxotroph= cannot survive on minimal medium

169

signal sequence

n-terminal
on all proteins except ones going to mitochondria, nucleus, peroxisomes or staying in the cytosol

170

targeting signal

need to go somewhere other than the PM in the secretory pathway
i.e. going to golgi, ER, lysosomes

171

localization signal

made in the cytosol and need to go somewhere
i.e. going to mitochondria, nucleus, peroxisomes

172

What kind of viruses can undergo productive life cycle?

only animal

173

Pribnow box

prokaryotic promoters

174

alpha decay

release a He nucleus

175

beta minus decay

neutron to a e and p
release the e-

176

beta plus decay

p to an e+ and n
release e+

177

electron capture

e and p to make an n

178

competitive inhibitor

binds to active site
doesn't change Vmax
increases Km

179

non-competitive inhibitor

binds to allosteric site
decreases Vmax
doesn't change Km

180

uncompetitive inhibitor

binds to enzyme-substrate complex
decreases Vmax
decreases Km

181

mixed-type inhibitor

binds to enzyme or enzyme-substrate compelx
decreases Vmax
Km depends

182

prokaryotic DNA polymerases

III- normal
II- back up for III
I- removes RNA and adds in DNA, 5' to 3' exo
IV and V- error prone, repair, stalling

183

RNA polymerase I

most rRNA

184

RNA polymerase II

mRNA, snRNA, some miRNA

185

RNA polymerase III

tRNA, long ncRNA, siRNA, some miRNA, small subset of rRNA

186

What can gluconeogenesis use?

pyruvate
lactate
krebs cycle intermediates
glycerol
carbon skeleton of glycogenic amino acids
NOT acetyl-CoA

187

ATP in cell respiration

30 for eukaryotes
32 for prokaryotes

188

ATP in electron transport chain

10H+/ NADH = 2.5 ATP
6H+/ FADH2 or NADH glycolysys = 1.5 ATP

189

Kreb's cycle per glucose

6 NADH
2 FADH2
4 CO2
2 GTP

190

glucose 6 phosphatase

G6P to glucose

191

F1,6 bisphosphatase

F16P to F6P

192

pyruvate carboxylase

pyruvate to OAA
requires ATP

193

PEP carboxy kinase

OAA to PEP
requires GTP

194

pyruvate kinase

PEP to pyruvate
makes an ATP

195

hexokinase

glucose to G6P
uses an ATP

196

pfk

F6P to F1,6P
uses an ATP

197

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

uses citrate
produces NADH and CO2