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Flashcards in Psych/Soc Deck (350):
1

What are the 3 Ps of socioeconomic status?

prestige
power
property

2

What does prestige refer to in the context of socioeconomic status?

one's reputation and standing in society

3

What does power refer to in the context of socioeconomic status?

the ability to enforce one's will on other people

4

What does property refer to in the context of socioeconomic status?

possessions, income and other wealth

5

What 3 things are often used to measure socioeconomic status?

education
income
occupation

6

Explain accessibility vs availability in terms of health care

availability is the presence of resources i.e. hospitals, doctors etc in your area
accessibility is the ability of someone to obtain those existing resources i.e. can they afford it, can they get to the hospital etc

7

Explain the caste system of social stratification

lower social mobility
less dependent on effort
social statues is defined by birth

8

Explain the class system of social stratification

some social mobility
social status is determined by both birth and individual merit

9

Explain the meritocracy system of social straification

higher social mobility
more dependent on effort
social status is based on individual merit

10

What is social reproduction?

when social inequality is transmitted from one generation to the next

11

What determines a person's social mobility?

capital

12

What are the 3 types of capital?

physical
cultural
social

13

What is physical capital?

money, property, land, other physical assets

14

What is cultural capital?

non-financial characteristics evaluated by society

15

What is social capital?

social networks i.e. who you know

16

How does functionalism view society?

as a complex system composed of many individual parts working together to maintain solidarity and social stability

17

What level of theory is functionalism?

macro

18

Who is Emile Durkheim?

he is one of the founding fathers of modern sociology
he established sociology as separate from psychology and political philosophy
he was a major proponent of functionalism

19

When does dynamic equilibrium occur?

when multiple interdependent parts in a society work together toward social stability

20

Describe some of Durkheim's assertions regarding functionalism and society

-modern societies are quite complex and require many different types of people working together to make the society function
-dynamic equilibrium
-the individual is significant only in terms of his or her status, position in patterns of social relations and associated behaviours
-social structure is a network of statuses connected by associated roles

21

What is a manifest function? Latent function?

a manifest function is the clear and open function of a social structure
a latent function is under the surface (not as obvious)

22

How does conflict theory view society?

as a competition for limited resources
(individuals and groups compete for social, political and material resources)

23

Name two sociologists associated with conflict theory

Karl Marx
Max Weber

24

Describe some of Karl Marx's assertions in conflict theory

-societies progress through class struggle between those who control production and those who provide the manpower for production i.e. capitalism vs proletariat
-capitalism produces internal tensions which will ultimately destroy capitalist society, which will be replaced by socialism

25

Describe some of Max Weber's assertions in conflict theory

-a capitalist system does lead to conflict, but the collapse is not inevitable
-there could be more that one source of conflict i.e. inequalities in political power and social status
-there are several factors the moderate people's reaction to inequality such as agreement with authority figures, high rates of social mobility and low rates of class difference

26

Who were the founding fathers of sociology?

Durkheim
Marx
Weber

27

What level of theory is conflict theory?

macro

28

How does symbolic interactionism view society?

it analyzes the meanings that people impose on objects, events and behaviours
people behave based on what they believe is true
therefore society is socially constructed through human interpretation and it is these interpretations that form the social bond

29

Explain how symbolic interactionism holds the principal of meaning to be the central aspect of human behaviour

-humans ascribe meaning to things and act toward those things based on their ascribed meaning
-communication via language allows humans to generate meaning through social interaction with each other and society
-humans modify meanings through an interpretive thought process

30

What level of theory is symbolic interactionism?

micro

31

How does social constructionism view society?

it suggests that we actively shape our society through social interactions, social institutions and knowledge are created by individuals interacting within the system rather than having any inherent truth of their own

major focus is studying how individuals and groups participate in the construction of society and social reality

32

What is a social construct?

a concept or practice that is created by a group, essentially everyone is society agrees to treat a certain aspect a certain way regardless of its inherent value and that is what determines its value
ie marriage

33

Is social construction dynamic?

yes

34

What level on theory is social constructionism?

micro

35

What is status?

a socially defined position or role within a society

36

What is master status?

the role or position that dominates i.e. what determines your general "place" in society

37

What is an ascribed status?

a status that is assigned to you by society regardless of your effort

38

What is an achieved status?

a status that is earned

39

What is a role?

a socially defined expectation about how you will behave based on your status

40

What is role conflict?

when two or more stases are held by an individual and there is conflict between the expectations for each i.e. you have limited time

41

What is role strain?

when you face conflicting expectations for a single role
i.e. you're a student so you need to study but you also want to have fun

42

What is role exit?

when you transition from one role to another

43

What is a social network?

a web of social relationships, including those in which a person is directly linked to others as well as those which are indirect

44

What is an organization?

a large group of people with a common purpose

45

What is the major difference between a social network and an organization?

organizations tend to be more complex, impersonal and hierarchically structured

46

Name 3 types of organizations

utilitarian
normative
coercive

47

What is a utilitarian organization?

members are motivated by some incentive or reward i.e. CAA

48

What is a normative organization?

members are motivated by a common cause or belief

49

What is a coercive organization?

members have been forced to join i.e. prison

50

What is a probability distribution?

a function that assigns a probability of falling within a given range on the x-axis

51

What percentage of a normal distribution falls within 1SD of the mean? 2SD? 3SD

1 SD = 68.2%
2 SD = 95.4%
3 SD = 99.8%

52

How does percentile rank correspond to SD of a normal distribution?

-3SD is 0.1 percentile
-2SD is 2nd
-1SD is 16th
mean is 50th
+1SD is 84th
+2SD is 98th
+3SD is 99.9th

53

What needs to be true in order to draw conclusions about populations from samples?

sample needs to be large enough i.e. n=30
samples need to be independent and random

54

When do we reject the null hypothesis for the MCAT?

when is less than 0.05

55

What does a t-test do?

uses the control sample to estimate the population parameter, then calculates the probability that the treatment group is sampled from this same population

56

What does ANOVA do?

calculates the ratio of the difference between groups divided by the difference within groups then uses the sample size and this ratio to perform a significance test

57

What is type 1 error?

false positive
ie experiment concludes there is a difference between groups even though there isn't

58

What is type 2 error?

false negative
ie experiment concludes there is no difference between groups even though there is

59

What is sensitivity?

there is a difference between groups and the experiment is right

60

What is specificity?

there is no difference between groups and the experiment is right

61

What is power?

the extent to which a study can detect a difference when a difference exists

62

Give a few examples of how you can maximize the difference within or between groups to increase your chances of a significant finding

between groups:
-have an effective intervention i.e. your antidepressant actually works really well

within groups:
-increase sample size
-use repeated measures on the same people
-screen people in groups so that they are as similar as possible on relevant variables
-randomly assign people to groups

63

What defines a non-experimental design?

lack of a control group i.e. case studies, surveys, observational studies etc

64

What is internal validity?

the extent to which we can say that the change in the dependent variable is due to the intervention (treatment)

65

What is external validity?

the extent to which the findings can be generalized to the real world

66

List some threats to internal validity

spontaneous recovery
maturation
measurement
secular shift (society changes)
history effects (i.e. natural disaster)
regression to the mean (ppl at extremes in a study move back to the mean on later tests)
instrument effects
selection effects
attrition effects (i.e. more people drop out of one group than another for some reason)

67

List some threats to external validity

experiment doesn't reflect the real world
selection criteria
situational effects

68

What is incidence vs prevalence?

prevalence is the # or % of people diagnosed with a disease or condition during the time window specified, while incidence is the # of NEW cases of a disease or condition that began during the time window specified

69

What is cross-sectional data?

data collected all at once i.e. a "snapshot"

70

What is longitudinal data?

repeated data collection from a group over time

71

What is personal identity?

all of the personal attributes that you consider integral to the description of who you are

72

What is social identity?

all of the socially defined attributes defining who you are
ie age, race, gender, religion, occupation

73

What is self-concept? What is another name for it?

also called self-identity, self-construction or self-perspective
it includes all of your beliefs about who you are as an individual

74

What is a self-schema?

beliefs and ideas that we have about ourselves that we use to guide and organize the processing of information that is relevant to ourselves

75

What is learned helplessness?

basically you don't even try to avoid a negative stimulus any more even though it actually is escapable

76

When does learned helplessness tend to occur?

when an individual posses low self-efficacy and an external locus of control

77

What is self-efficacy?

our belief in our abilities, competence and effectiveness

78

What is a locus of control?

our belief in whether or not we can influence the events that impact us

79

What is self-consciousness?

awareness of one's self

80

What is self-esteem?

beliefs about one's self-worth

81

What does the Attribution Theory explain?

how we understand our own behaviour and the behaviour of others

82

According to Attribution Theory, given a set of circumstances, we tend to attribute behaviour to what?

dispositional attribution (internal causes) or situational attribution (external causes)

83

What 3 factors determine whether we attribute behaviour to internal or external causes?

distinctiveness
consensus
consistency

84

Explain distinctiveness in terms of Attribution Theory

the extent to which the individual behaves in the same way in similar situations

85

Explain consensus in terms of Attribution Theory

the extent to which the individual is behaving similarly to other individuals

86

Explain consistency in terms of Attribution Theory

the extent to which the individual's behaviour is similar every time this situation occurs

87

What is the fundamental attribution error?

we attribute another person's behaviour to their personality

88

What is actor/observer bias?

we attribute our own actions to the situation

89

What is self-serving bias?

we attribute our successes to ourselves, but our failures to others

90

What is optimism bias?

we believe that bad things happen to other people, but not to ourselves

91

What is the just world belief?

we believe that bad things happen to others because of their own actions

92

What is the social facilitation effect?

when the presence of others improves our performance
(this tends to only occur with simple, well-ingrained tasks)

93

What is deindividualization?

in situations where there is a high degree of arousal and a low degree of personal responsibility, people may lose their sense of restraint and their individual identity in exchange for identifying with a mob mentality

94

What is the bystander effect?

we are less likely to help a victim when other people are present because everyone feels a diffusion of responsibility

95

What was study in the case of Kitty Genovese?

the bystander effect

96

What is social loafing?

when working in a group each person has a tendency to exert less individual effort than if they were working independently

97

What is groupthink?

when the desire for harmony or conformity in a group of people results in members attempting to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints

98

When is groupthink most likely to occur?

-the group is overly optimistic and strongly believes in its stance
-the group justifies its own decisions while demonizing those of opponents
-dissenting opinions, information and/or facts are prevented from permeating the group (mind guarding)
-individuals feel pressured to conform and censor their own opinions in favour of consensus (creates an illusion of unanimity)

99

What is mind guarding?

the process by which dissenting opinions, information and/or facts are prevented from permeating a group

100

What is group polarization?

when groups tend to intensify the pre-existing views of their members i.e. the average view of a member is accentuated

101

What is conformity?

when you adjust your behaviour or thinking based on the thinking of others

102

What were Solomon Asch's experiments about?

conformity
they were the experiments comparing the sizes of lines

103

What is obedience?

when you yield to explicit instructions or orders from an authority

104

What were Stanley Milgram's experiments about?

obedience
they were the experiments with a teacher shocking a learner

105

What is deviance?

a violation of society's standards of conduct or expectations

106

What is social stigma?

the extreme disapproval of a person or a group on socially characteristic grounds that distinguish them from other members of a society

107

What is impression management?

conscious or unconscious process whereby we attempt to manage our own image by influencing the perceptions of others

108

Where does the dramaturgical perspective stem from?

the theory of symbolic interactionism

109

What is the dramaturgical perspective?

we imagine ourselves as playing certain roles when interacting with others, we base our presentations of cultural values, norms and expectations with the ultimate goal of presenting an acceptable self to others
we have a front and backstage self

110

What is persuasion?

a powerful way to influence what others think and do

111

What are the three key elements of persuasion?

message characteristics
source characteristics
target characteristics

112

What are message characteristics?

the features of a message itself
i.e. the logic and key points, length and grammatical complexity

113

What are source characteristics?

characteristics of the person or venue delivering the message
ie expertise, knowledge, trustworthiness, attractiveness

114

What are target characteristics?

characteristics of the person receiving the message
i.e. self-esteem, intelligence, mood

115

What does the Elaboration-Likelihood Model propose?

that there are two cognitive routes of persuasion: the central route and the peripheral route

116

What is the central route of persuasion? What kind of outcome does it lead to?

when people are persuaded by the content of the argument itself
leads to a lasting change that resists fading and counter attacks

117

What is the peripheral route of persuasion? What kind of outcome does it lead to?

when people focus on superficial or secondary characteristics of the message
leads to a temporary change that is susceptible to fading and counterattacks

118

When is the audience more likely to use the central processing route?

when they have high motivation and ability to think about the message

119

When is the audience more likely to use the peripheral processing route?

when they have low motivation ability to think about the message

120

What experiments did Harry Harlow and Margaret Harlow do?

experiments on monkeys, testing attachment to others
found that they were attached to their mothers for comfort
(originally was thought that it was only for food)

121

What experiments did Mary Ainsworth do?

"strange situation experiments" about different attachment styles of infants

122

What are the 2 types of attachment styles of infants that Mary Ainsworth discovered?

securely attached and insecurely attached

123

Describe securely attached infants

will happily explore in the presence of their mothers, cry when mother leaves, are quickly consoled when she returns

124

Describe insecurely attached infants

will not explore their surroundings while their mother is present, when mother leaves they will either cry loudly and stay upset or will be indifferent to her departure and return

125

What is personality?

our thoughts, feelings, ways of thinking about things, beliefs and behaviours

126

What are the big five traits used to describe personality?

openness
conscientiousness
extraversion
agreeableness
neuroticism

127

Who developed the psychoanalytic perspective of personality?

Sigmund Freud

128

What is the psychoanalytic perspective of personality?

theory that asserts that personality is shaped largely by the unconscious

129

What two things did Freud suggest that human behaviour is motivated by?

libido (life instinct)
death instinct

130

What is libido?

life instinct
drives behaviours focused on pleasure, survive; and avoidance of pain

131

What is the death instinct?

drives behaviours fueled by the unconscious desire to die or hurt oneself or others

132

What 3 components did Freud propose the human psyche could be divided into?

id
ego
superego

133

Describe the id

largely unconscious
responsible for our drives to avoid pain and seek pleasure

134

Describe the superego

responsible for our moral judgments of right and wrong
strives for perfection

135

Describe the ego

responsible for our logical thinking and planning

136

How many stages are there in Freud's psychosexual stages of development?

5

137

Describe Freud's first stage of psychosexual development

oral stage
0 to 1
erogenous zones is the mouth i.e. sucking, chewing, biting
Adult fixation examples:
-orally aggressive (verbally abusive)
-orally passive i.e. smoking overeating

138

Describe Freud's second stage of psychosexual development

anal stage
1 to 3
erogenous zone is the anus i.e. bowel and bladder control
Adult fixation examples:
-anal retentive, overly neat/tidy
-anal expulsive, disorganized

139

Describe Freud's third stage of psychosexual development

phallic stage
3 to 6
erogenous zone is the genitals
Adult fixation examples:
-Oedipus complex (males)
-Electra complex (females)

140

Describe Freud's fourth stage of psychosexual development

latency
6 to 12
no erogenous zone, sexual feelings are dormant
no adult fixation

141

Describe Freud's fifth stage of psychosexual development

genital
12+
sexual interests mature
Adult fixation examples:
-frigidity
-impotence
-difficulty in intimate relationships

142

How many stages are in Erik Erikson's psychosocial stages of development?

8

143

What is Erik Erikson's first stage of psychosocial development?

trust vs mistrust
infancy
trust: infant's needs are met
mistrust: infant's needs are not met

144

What is Erikson's second stage of psychosocial development?

autonomy vs shame
early childhood
autonomy: children learn self-control
shame: children remain dependent

145

What is Erikson's third stage of psychosocial development?

initiative vs guilt
preschool age
initiative: children achieve purpose
guilt: children thwarted in efforts

146

What is Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development?

industry vs inferiority
school age
industry: children gain competence
inferiority: children feel incompetent

147

What is Erikson's fifth stage of psychosocial development?

identity vs role confusion
adolescence
identity: adolescents learn sense of self
role confusion: adolescents lack own identity

148

What is Erkison's sixth stage of psychosocial development?

intimacy vs isolation
young adulthood
intimacy: YAs develop mature relationships
isolation: YAs unable to create social ties

149

What is Erikson's seventh stage of psychosocial development?

generativity vs stagnation
middle age
generativity: adults contribute to others/society
stagnation: adults feel life is meaningless

150

What is Erikson's eighth stage of psychosocial development?

integrity vs despair
later life
integrity: adults develop wisdom
despair: adults feel unaccomplished

151

Which of Erikson's stages of development corresponds to Freud's oral stage?

trust vs mistrust

152

Which perspective is Erik Erikson?

psychoanalytic

153

Which of Erikson's stages corresponds to Freud's anal stage?

autonomy vs shame

154

Which of Erikson's stages corresponds to Freud's phallic stage?

initiative vs guilt

155

Which of Erikson's stages corresponds to Freud's latency stage?

industry vs inferiority

156

Which of Erikson's stages corresponds to Freud's genital stage?

identity vs role confusion

157

Who was the founding father of behaviourism?

BF Skinner

158

What is the behaviourist perspective of personality?

-personality is a result of learned behaviour patterns based on our environment
-does not take internal thoughts and feelings into account
-is deterministic
-the development of a person occurs through classical and operant conditioning

159

What is meant by the behaviourist perspective of personality being deterministic?

people begin as blank slates and environmental reinforcement and punishment completely determine an individual's subsequent behaviour and personalities

160

What is the social cognitive perspective of personality?

-personality is a result of reciprocal interactions among behavioural, cognitive and environmental factors
-emphasizes the importance of observational learning, self-efficacy, situational influence and cognitive processes

161

Who is most associated with social learning or observational (vicarious) learning?

Albert Bandura

162

What is the behavioural component of social cognitive theory?

behavioural component includes patterns of classical and operant conditioning AND observational learning

163

What is the cognitive component of social cognitive theory?

includes the mental processes involved in observational learning and conscious cognitive processes such as self-efficacy beliefs

164

What is the environmental component of social cognitive theory?

includes situational influences, such as opportunities, rewards, and punishments

165

What were Albert Bandura's experiments?

observational learning using the Bobo doll

166

Who developed the humanist perspective of personality?

Carl Rogers

167

What is the humanist perspective of personality?

humans are driven by an actualizing tendency to realize their own highest potential and personality conflicts arise when this is somehow thwarted

168

How did Rogers describe human development?

-as progressing from undifferentiated to differentiated
-development of self-concept was the the main goal
-self-concept was influenced by unconditional and conditional positive regard
-those raised with unconditional positive regard have the opportunity to achieve self-actualization
-those raised with conditional positive regard feel worthy only when they've met certain conditions
-the ideal self is an impossible standard we can never reach
-when the real self and ideal self are incongruent it can cause psychopathy

169

What is motivation?

the driving force that causes us to act or behave in certain ways

170

Name 4 factors that influence motivation

instincts
drives
needs
arousal

171

What is drive-reduction theory?

suggests that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce that need by engaging in some behaviour

172

What did Abraham Maslow create?

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

173

Name the components of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs from bottom to top

physiological needs
safety needs
love and belonging
esteem needs
self-actualization

174

What is a psychological disorder?

a set of behavioural and/or psychological symptoms that are not in keeping with cultural norms, and that are severe enough to cause significant personal distress and/or significant impairment to social, occupational or personal functioning

175

Name 5 anxiety disorders

generalized anxiety disorder
phobias
panic disorder
obsessive-compulsive disorder
post-traumatic stress disorder

176

What are the general characteristics of anxiety disorders?

excessive worry
uneasiness
apprehension
fear with both physiological and psychological symptoms

177

Name 4 mood disorders

major depressive disorder
dysthymic disorder
bipolar disorder
cyclothymic disorder

178

Name 3 cluster A personality disorders

paranoid personality disorder
schizoid personality disorder
schizotypal personality disorder

179

Name 4 cluster B personality disorders

antisocial personality disorder
borderline personality disorder
histronic personality disorder
narcissistic personality disorder

180

Name 3 cluster C personality disorders

avoidant personality disorder
dependent personality disorder
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder disorder

181

What are the general characteristics of mood disorders?

disturbance in mood or affect
presence or absence of a manic or hypomanic episode (this is what distinguishes categories)

182

What are the general characteristics of personality disorders?

enduring maladaptive patterns of behaviour and cognition that depart from social norms and are displayed across a variety of contexts, which develop early and cause significant dysfunction and distress

183

Name 2 psychotic disorders

schizophrenia
delusional disorder

184

What are the general characteristics of psychotic disorders?

a general loss of contact with reality, which can include delusions, hallucinations, and psychosis

185

Name 3 dissociative disorders

dissociative identity disorder
dissociative amnesia
depersonalization disorder

186

What are the general characteristics of dissociative disorders?

disruptions in memory, awareness, identity, or perception
may be caused by psychological trauma

187

Name 4 eating disorders

anorexia nervosa
bulimia nervosa
binge-eating disorder
pica

188

What are the general characteristics of eating disorders?

disruptive eating patterns that negatively impact physical and mental health

189

Name 4 neurocognitive disorders

Alzheimer's disease
delirium
dementia
amnesia

190

What are the general characteristics of neurocognitive disorders?

cognitive decline in memory, problem-solving and perception

191

Name 3 sleep disorders

insomnia
narcolepsy
sleepwalking

192

Name 5 somatoform disorders

conversion disorder
somatization disorder
hypochondriasis
body dysmorphic disorder
pain disorder

193

What are the general characteristics of somatoform disorders?

symptoms that cannot be explained by a medical condition or substance use and are not attributable to another mental disorder

194

When does non-associative learning occur?

when an organism is repeatedly exposed to a given stimulus

195

What is habituation?

becoming accustomed to a stimulus

196

What is dishabituation?

when a stimulus is removed after an organism has become habituated to it

197

What is sensitization?

when an organism has increased responsiveness to a repeated stimulus

198

What is desensitization?

when an organism has a diminished response to a stimulus to which sensitization has occurred

199

Who was the first to describe classical conditioning?

Ivan Pavlov

200

Using Pavlov's dogs as an example of classical conditioning identify the unconditioned and conditioned stimulus and response

food = unconditioned stimulus
salivating = unconditioned response
bell ringing = conditioned stimulus
salivating = conditioned response

201

What is generalization?

when stimuli other than the original conditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned response

202

What is discrimination (in classical conditioning)?

when the conditioned stimulus is distinguished from other stimuli and is the only thing to elicit the conditioned response

203

What is operant conditioning?

a process in which reinforcement and punishment are used to mild behaviour responses

204

Who is the most associated with operant conditioning and what type of experiments did he do?

BF Skinner
he did experiments with rats in boxes with levers for food and electric shocks

205

What is the difference between primary and secondary reinforcements and punishments?

primary are things like food, sleep, water etc that you need to survive
secondary are other things ie tokens for prizes or good/bad grades

206

What is the difference between negative and positive punishments and reinforcements?

positive add something to the situation
negative take something away

207

What is the difference between ratio and interval reinforcement schedules?

ratio schedules give reinforcement after a certain number of times the wanted action occurs
interval give reinforcement after a certain amount of time
(both can be fixed or variable)

208

What type of reinforcement schedule is the most resistant to extinction?

variable ratio (VR=variable ratio=very resistant)

209

What is observational learning? Who identified it and what kind of experiments did he do?

Albert Bandura
did experiments with the Bobo doll
it is learning through the observation of another's behaviour

210

What is insight learning?

a process in which the solution to a problem suddenly comes to us in "a flash of insight"

211

Who first demonstrated insight learning and how did he do it?

Wolfgang Kohler
did studies with chimps where he placed food out of reach

212

What is latent learning?

a process in which learning is occurring but it is not immediately obvious, later when needed the learning demonstrates itself

213

What experiments were first use to demonstrate latent learning?

experiments involving rats in mazes looking for food

214

What are the serial position effects of memory?

primacy effect (remember first words)
recency effect (remember the last words)

215

What is encoding with respect to memory?

it is the transfer of sensory memory into our memory system
may involves the coding/processing of information to be stored

216

Name 7 encoding strategies

rehearsal
organization
semantic (putting in a meaningful context)
chunking
dual-encoding (encoding via >1 stimuli)
mnemonics
self-reference

217

What are the 3 components of memory in the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of memory?

sensory memory
short-term memory
long-term memory

218

In the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory how do you get from sensory memory to short-term memory?

attention

219

During which stages in the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory can you lose information?

all 3

220

How is info kept in the short-term memory stage?

maintenance rehearsal

221

How does info go from short-term memory to long-term memory? How does it go the opposite way?

short-term to long term is encoding
long-term to short-term is retrieval

222

Describe sensory memory in the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory

contains iconic (visual) and acoustic/echoic memory
decays quickly

223

How long does iconic memory last?

less than a second

224

How long does echoic memory last?

2-4 seconds

225

Describe short-term member in the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory

has a rehearsal buffer w capacity of ~7 (+/- 2)
decays in 15-30 sec
encoding into STM is primarily acoustic

226

Describe long-term memory in the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory

permanent storage
unlimited capacity
ecoding into LTM is primarily semantic (meaning-making)

227

What are the 2 large components of long term memory?

explicit/declarative memory
implicit/non declarative

228

What is explicit memory?

also called declarative memory
it is memory with conscious recall

229

What is implicit memory?

also called non declarative memory
it is memory without conscious recall

230

What is procedural memory?

a type of implicit memory
learning motor skills, physical actions etc

231

What are the two types of explicit long-term memory?

episodic and semantic memory

232

What is episodic memory?

events you have personally experienced

233

What is procedural memory?

your general knowledge of facts and information

234

How can you forget from sensory memory?

decay

235

How can you forget from short-term memory?

decay
displacement

236

How can you forget from long-term memory?

decay
interference
retrieval failure

237

What is displacement with respect to short-term memory?

when new often relevant information in the rehearsal buffer is substituted for the actual information

238

Name 4 types of retrieval

free recall
cued recall
recognition
relearning

239

What is interference?

when competing material makes it more difficult to encode or retrieve information

240

What are the two types of interference?

proactive and retroactive interference

241

Describe proactive interference

information that has already been learned interferes with the ability to learn new information

242

Describe retroactive interference

new information that has already been learned makes it more difficult to retrieve older information

243

What are source monitoring errors?

source amnesia, forgetting who told you something etc

244

What are false memories?

creation of memory that never existed

245

What is anterograde amnesia?

inability to form new memories

246

What is retrograde amnesia?

inability to retrieve or the loss of stored memories

247

What part of the brain is involved a lot in memory?

hippocampus

248

What is attitude?

our evaluation, on a scale from positive to negative of other people, events etc
formed from our past and present experiences
measurable and mutable
impact our behaviours and emotions

249

What are the 3 components of attitude?

affect (our feelings)
behaviour (our internal and external responses)
cognition (our thoughts and beliefs)

250

Give 4 situations in which attitude better predicts behaviour

social influences are reduced
general patterns of behaviour are observed (not specific)
specific attitudes are considered (rather than general)
self-reflection occurs

251

What is the principle of aggregation?

attitude affects a person's aggregate or average behaviour, but not necessarily each isolated act

252

Give 3 situations in which behaviours are more likely to influence attitude

role-playing
public declarations
justification of effort

253

What was Zimbardo's prison experiment an example of?

behaviours influencing attitude

254

Who's theory was cognitive dissonance?

Leon Festinger

255

What is cognitive dissonance?

when our attitudes and behaviours don't match we feel tension/dissonance and so we make our views match what we've done to reduce the tension

256

What is consciousness?

the awareness that we have of ourselves, our internal states and the environment
is important for reflection and directs our attention

257

What controls alertness and arousal in the brain?

the reticular activating system (RAS)

258

What are the three physiological indicators of a mammal's circadian rhythm?

melatonin released by the pineal gland
body temperature
serum cortisol levels

259

Name 3 dyssomnias

insomnia
narcolepsy
sleep apnea

260

What are dyssomnias?

abnormalities in the amount, quality or timing of sleep

261

What is insomnia?

inability to remain asleep
can stem from chronic stress

262

What is narcolepsy?

periodic, overwhelming sleepiness during waking periods that usually last less than 5 minutes

263

What is sleep apnea?

intermittent cessation of breathing during sleep which results in awakening after a minute or two without air
can repeat hundreds of times a night and deprive sufferers of deep sleep

264

What are parasomnias? Name 2

abnormal behaviours that occur during sleep
somnambulism and night terrors

265

What is sommniabulism?

sleep-walking
usually occurs during slow wave sleep (stage 3) and during the first third of the night

266

What are night terrors?

usually occur during stage 3 sleep (vs nightmares which come at halloween)
don't remember in the morning

267

What type of waves does your brain emit when you're awake?

beta

268

What kind of waves does your brain emit when you're drowsy?

alpha

269

How much of your total sleep in a night is REM?

about 25%

270

Are the different stages of sleep spaced evenly throughout the night?

no
deep sleep is front-loaded, REM and light sleep are back-loaded
there is no REM in the first 90-minute cycle

271

How long is a sleep cycle?

about minutes

272

Give the stages of sleep in order that they occurs

1 2 3 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 1

273

Is there REM in the 1st 90 minute sleep cycle?

no

274

When does stage 4 of sleep drop out? Stage 3?

stage 4 drops out after 2 cycles
stage 3 after 3

275

Describe stage 1 of sleep

light
theta waves
slow rolling eye movements
moderate activity
fleeting thoughts

276

Describe stage 2 of sleep

light
sleep spindle and k-complex
no eye movement
moderate activity
increased relaxation
decreased temp, HR and respiration

277

Describe stages 3 and 4 of sleep

deep
delta waves
no eye movement
moderate activity
heart and digestion slow
growth hormones secreted (from pituitary)

278

Describe REM sleep

light
similar to beta waves but more jagged
when most dreams occur
bursts of quick eye movements
almost no activity - paradoxical sleep

279

What is REM rebound?

after not getting enough REM your body will make up for it in subsequent nights

280

Give 3 examples of depressants

alcohol
barbiturates
opiates

281

What is the mechanism of action of depressants?

depress the central nervous system
especially the fight or flight reflex

282

What are some effects of depressants?

impaired motor control
eventual addiction
overdoses can lead to death

283

Give 4 examples of stimulants

caffeine
nicotine
amphetamines
cocaine

284

What is the mechanism of action of stimulants?

increases release or inhibits reuptake of neurotransmitters (or both)

285

What are some effects of stimulants?

speed up body functions i.e. breathing, heart etc
pupil dilation
rush/high followed by a crash

286

Name 2 types of hallucinogens

LSD
marijuana (THC)

287

What is the mechanism of action of hallucinogens?

distorts perceptions in the absence of sensory input

288

What are some effects of hallucinogens?

hallucinations
impaired judgement
slowed reaction time

289

What determines physical vs psychological dependance?

withdrawal symptoms

290

How is addiction defined?

as compulsive drug use despite harmful consequences
characterized by am inability to stop using the drug, failure to meet work, social or family obligations and sometimes tolerance and withdrawal

291

What are the 3 components of emotion?

physiological
behavioural
cognitive

292

What are the universal emotions? Who expresses them?

happiness
sadness
surprise
fear
disgust
anger
they are expressed by all normally developing or developed humans across all cultures

293

What is the Yerkes-Dodson law?

for non-complex tasks a high level of arousal is okay, for complex tasks lower levels of arousal are better

294

Explain the James-Lange theory of emotion

"common sense view"
emotion inducing stimulus
gives physiological AND behavioural response which leads to cognitive interpretation and then labelling of emotion

295

Explain the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion

emotion inducing stimulus
gives physiological response and cognitive interpretation at the same time
leads to behavioural response and the labelling of the emotion

296

Explain the Schachter-Singer theory of emotion

also called the two-factor cognitive theory
emotion inducing stimulus
gives physiological response
which leads to cognitive interpretation
and then gives behavioural response and labelling of emotion

297

Name the parts of the limbic system

thalamus
hypothalamus
frontal lobe
olfactory bulb
amygdala
hippocampus

298

What is the role of the thalamus in the limbic system?

relay station for 4 of the senses (not smell)

299

What is the role of the hypothalamus in the limbic system?

motivated behaviours ie hunger, thirst, sex drive

300

What is the role of the frontal lobe in the limbic system?

executive function and control of emotion

301

What is the role of the olfactory bulb in the limbic system?

smell

302

What is the role of amygdala in the limbic system?

fear

303

What is the role of the hippocampus in the limbic system?

memory consolidation

304

What is our physiological response to acute stress? Chronic stress?

acute = SNS (then PNS)
chronic = cortisol

305

What is Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome?

alarm > resistance > exhaustion (resulting in sickness)

306

Name 3 types of stressors

catastrophes
significant life changes
daily hassles

307

What are catastrophes?

unpredictable, large-scale events that include natural disasters and wartime events and affect many people

308

Can positive significant life changes cause stress?

yes

309

What is absolute threshold?

the lowest level of a stimulus we can detect 50% of the time

310

What is a difference threshold?

the minimum difference between two stimuli we can detect 50% of the time
also called the just noticeable difference

311

What is Weber's law?

human responses to physiological stimuli are generally proportional to a constant magnitude for a given sensory stimulus
different sensory stimuli and different discriminatory tasks have different difference thresholds
we are more accurate at detecting change when the initial intensity of the stimulus us weak, rather than strong

312

What is signal detection theory? What are the 4 possible outcomes?

proposes a method for quantifying a person's ability to detect a given stimulus amongst other, non-important stimuli
outcomes: hit, miss, false alarm, correct rejection

313

What is required to detect a stimulus according to signal detection theory?

acquisition of information
application of criteria

314

What does accuracy of detecting a stimulus rely on according to signal detection theory?

external noise
internal noise

315

What does a receiver operating characteristic curve graph? What does it demonstrate?

displays hit rate vs false alarm rate
area under the graph is the person's accuracy

316

What kind of processing does Gestalt Psychology focus on?

top-down processing

317

Name 2 key Gestalt principles and any laws within them

figure and ground
grouping:
law of proximity
law of similarity (i.e. colour)
law of continuity (i.e. sin wave vs semi-circles)
law of connectedness
law of closure (closing shapes)

318

What is the very broad definition of cognition?

how we process information i.e. receiving, storing, thought processes for language etc
basically everything

319

What is Baddeley's Model of Working Memory?

an explanation of how our 3 short-term sensory stores interact with the central executive, which controls the flow of info to and from the sensory stores

320

What are the 3 short-term sensory stores in Baddeley's model of working memory? Where do they each lead to?

phonological loop to semantic verbal memory
visuospatial sketchpad to semantic visual memory
episodic buffer to episodic memory

321

What does the central executive do?

coordination of the slave systems
shifting between tasks or retrieval strategies
selective attention and inhibition

322

What are the two possibilities for new information and integration into our schemas?

assimilate- interpret new info based on our current schemas
accommodate- incorporate new info and experiences into our schemas

323

What did Jean Piaget contribute to psychology?

his 4 stages of cognitive development

324

Describe Piaget's first stage of cognitive development

Sensorimotor
0-1.5/2
child experiences the world directly through senses and motor movement
child learns object permanence
child has stranger anxiety

325

Describe Piaget's second stage of cognitive development

Preoperational
2-6/7
child can represent things with words and images, but uses intuitive, not logical, reasoning
like to pretend play a lot
egocentrism

326

Describe Piaget's third stage of cognitive development

Concrete Operational
7-11
child thinks logically and performs simple mental manipulations with concrete concepts
learn conservation

327

Describe Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development

Formal Operational
12-adult
person can reason abstractly, solve hypothetical problems, deduce consequences etc
ie have abstract logic
also learn moral reasoning

328

What is an algorithm?

a step-by-step procedure that exhausts all possible options but guarantees a solution

329

What is a heuristic?

a mental rule-of-thumb, shortcut or guideline that can be applied to problem solving

330

What is confirmation bias?

when we seek evidence to support our conclusion or ideas more than we seek evidence that will refute them
also occurs when we interpret neutral or ambiguous evidence as supporting our beliefs

331

What is fixation?

when we have structured a problem in our mind a certain way, even if that way is ineffective, and then are unable to restructure it

332

What is a mental set?

our tendency to approach situations in a certain way because that method worked for us in the past

333

What is functional fixedness?

a mental bias that limits our perspective for how an object can be used based on how that object is traditionally used

334

What is the availability heuristic?

when we rely on immediate examples that come to mind when trying to make a decision or judgment
i.e. you overestimate the likelihood of something happening because you can think of examples of it

335

What is the representativeness heuristic?

when we estimate the likelihood of an event y comparing it to an existing prototype (kind of like a stereotype) in our minds

336

What is a prototype?

what we think is the most relevant or typical example of a particular event or object

337

What is the behaviourist model of language acquisition?

infants are trained to learn language through operant conditioning

338

Who is Noam Chomsky?

linguist that proposed Universal Grammar/Language Acquisition Device

339

WHat is Universal Grammar? What is another name for it?

humans are born with an innate ability to learn language
all normally-developing humans learn language when exposed to it
there are critical periods
also called Language Acquisition Device
(proposed by Noam Chomsky)

340

What are the functions of the frontal lobe of the brain?

decision-making
executive management
regulation of emotion

341

What does the parietal lobe do?

touch sensations
space is allotted based on sensitivity

342

What does the occipital lobe do?

vision

343

What does the cerebellum deal with?

physical activity

344

What does the temporal lobe deal with?

hearing

345

Where is Broca's Area?

inferior frontal gyrus of dominant hemisphere (usually left)

346

What is Broca's Area associated with?

language production

347

What happens if someone's Broca's Area is damaged?

non-fluent aphasia with intact comprehension
i.e. they know what you're saying but they don't have fluent speech

348

Where is Wernicke's Area?

posterior superior temporal gyrus

349

What is Wernicke's Area associated with?

understanding written and spoken language

350

What happens if someone has damage to Wernicke's Area?

fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension
i.e. they talk and the grammatical structure makes sense but the actual sentences make no sense at all