Flashcards in Psych/Soc Deck (350):
What are the 3 Ps of socioeconomic status?
What does prestige refer to in the context of socioeconomic status?
one's reputation and standing in society
What does power refer to in the context of socioeconomic status?
the ability to enforce one's will on other people
What does property refer to in the context of socioeconomic status?
possessions, income and other wealth
What 3 things are often used to measure socioeconomic status?
Explain accessibility vs availability in terms of health care
availability is the presence of resources i.e. hospitals, doctors etc in your area
accessibility is the ability of someone to obtain those existing resources i.e. can they afford it, can they get to the hospital etc
Explain the caste system of social stratification
lower social mobility
less dependent on effort
social statues is defined by birth
Explain the class system of social stratification
some social mobility
social status is determined by both birth and individual merit
Explain the meritocracy system of social straification
higher social mobility
more dependent on effort
social status is based on individual merit
What is social reproduction?
when social inequality is transmitted from one generation to the next
What determines a person's social mobility?
What are the 3 types of capital?
What is physical capital?
money, property, land, other physical assets
What is cultural capital?
non-financial characteristics evaluated by society
What is social capital?
social networks i.e. who you know
How does functionalism view society?
as a complex system composed of many individual parts working together to maintain solidarity and social stability
What level of theory is functionalism?
Who is Emile Durkheim?
he is one of the founding fathers of modern sociology
he established sociology as separate from psychology and political philosophy
he was a major proponent of functionalism
When does dynamic equilibrium occur?
when multiple interdependent parts in a society work together toward social stability
Describe some of Durkheim's assertions regarding functionalism and society
-modern societies are quite complex and require many different types of people working together to make the society function
-the individual is significant only in terms of his or her status, position in patterns of social relations and associated behaviours
-social structure is a network of statuses connected by associated roles
What is a manifest function? Latent function?
a manifest function is the clear and open function of a social structure
a latent function is under the surface (not as obvious)
How does conflict theory view society?
as a competition for limited resources
(individuals and groups compete for social, political and material resources)
Name two sociologists associated with conflict theory
Describe some of Karl Marx's assertions in conflict theory
-societies progress through class struggle between those who control production and those who provide the manpower for production i.e. capitalism vs proletariat
-capitalism produces internal tensions which will ultimately destroy capitalist society, which will be replaced by socialism
Describe some of Max Weber's assertions in conflict theory
-a capitalist system does lead to conflict, but the collapse is not inevitable
-there could be more that one source of conflict i.e. inequalities in political power and social status
-there are several factors the moderate people's reaction to inequality such as agreement with authority figures, high rates of social mobility and low rates of class difference
Who were the founding fathers of sociology?
What level of theory is conflict theory?
How does symbolic interactionism view society?
it analyzes the meanings that people impose on objects, events and behaviours
people behave based on what they believe is true
therefore society is socially constructed through human interpretation and it is these interpretations that form the social bond
Explain how symbolic interactionism holds the principal of meaning to be the central aspect of human behaviour
-humans ascribe meaning to things and act toward those things based on their ascribed meaning
-communication via language allows humans to generate meaning through social interaction with each other and society
-humans modify meanings through an interpretive thought process
What level of theory is symbolic interactionism?
How does social constructionism view society?
it suggests that we actively shape our society through social interactions, social institutions and knowledge are created by individuals interacting within the system rather than having any inherent truth of their own
major focus is studying how individuals and groups participate in the construction of society and social reality
What is a social construct?
a concept or practice that is created by a group, essentially everyone is society agrees to treat a certain aspect a certain way regardless of its inherent value and that is what determines its value
Is social construction dynamic?
What level on theory is social constructionism?
What is status?
a socially defined position or role within a society
What is master status?
the role or position that dominates i.e. what determines your general "place" in society
What is an ascribed status?
a status that is assigned to you by society regardless of your effort
What is an achieved status?
a status that is earned
What is a role?
a socially defined expectation about how you will behave based on your status
What is role conflict?
when two or more stases are held by an individual and there is conflict between the expectations for each i.e. you have limited time
What is role strain?
when you face conflicting expectations for a single role
i.e. you're a student so you need to study but you also want to have fun
What is role exit?
when you transition from one role to another
What is a social network?
a web of social relationships, including those in which a person is directly linked to others as well as those which are indirect
What is an organization?
a large group of people with a common purpose
What is the major difference between a social network and an organization?
organizations tend to be more complex, impersonal and hierarchically structured
Name 3 types of organizations
What is a utilitarian organization?
members are motivated by some incentive or reward i.e. CAA
What is a normative organization?
members are motivated by a common cause or belief
What is a coercive organization?
members have been forced to join i.e. prison
What is a probability distribution?
a function that assigns a probability of falling within a given range on the x-axis
What percentage of a normal distribution falls within 1SD of the mean? 2SD? 3SD
1 SD = 68.2%
2 SD = 95.4%
3 SD = 99.8%
How does percentile rank correspond to SD of a normal distribution?
-3SD is 0.1 percentile
-2SD is 2nd
-1SD is 16th
mean is 50th
+1SD is 84th
+2SD is 98th
+3SD is 99.9th
What needs to be true in order to draw conclusions about populations from samples?
sample needs to be large enough i.e. n=30
samples need to be independent and random
When do we reject the null hypothesis for the MCAT?
when is less than 0.05
What does a t-test do?
uses the control sample to estimate the population parameter, then calculates the probability that the treatment group is sampled from this same population
What does ANOVA do?
calculates the ratio of the difference between groups divided by the difference within groups then uses the sample size and this ratio to perform a significance test
What is type 1 error?
ie experiment concludes there is a difference between groups even though there isn't
What is type 2 error?
ie experiment concludes there is no difference between groups even though there is
What is sensitivity?
there is a difference between groups and the experiment is right
What is specificity?
there is no difference between groups and the experiment is right
What is power?
the extent to which a study can detect a difference when a difference exists
Give a few examples of how you can maximize the difference within or between groups to increase your chances of a significant finding
-have an effective intervention i.e. your antidepressant actually works really well
-increase sample size
-use repeated measures on the same people
-screen people in groups so that they are as similar as possible on relevant variables
-randomly assign people to groups
What defines a non-experimental design?
lack of a control group i.e. case studies, surveys, observational studies etc
What is internal validity?
the extent to which we can say that the change in the dependent variable is due to the intervention (treatment)
What is external validity?
the extent to which the findings can be generalized to the real world
List some threats to internal validity
secular shift (society changes)
history effects (i.e. natural disaster)
regression to the mean (ppl at extremes in a study move back to the mean on later tests)
attrition effects (i.e. more people drop out of one group than another for some reason)
List some threats to external validity
experiment doesn't reflect the real world
What is incidence vs prevalence?
prevalence is the # or % of people diagnosed with a disease or condition during the time window specified, while incidence is the # of NEW cases of a disease or condition that began during the time window specified
What is cross-sectional data?
data collected all at once i.e. a "snapshot"
What is longitudinal data?
repeated data collection from a group over time
What is personal identity?
all of the personal attributes that you consider integral to the description of who you are
What is social identity?
all of the socially defined attributes defining who you are
ie age, race, gender, religion, occupation
What is self-concept? What is another name for it?
also called self-identity, self-construction or self-perspective
it includes all of your beliefs about who you are as an individual
What is a self-schema?
beliefs and ideas that we have about ourselves that we use to guide and organize the processing of information that is relevant to ourselves
What is learned helplessness?
basically you don't even try to avoid a negative stimulus any more even though it actually is escapable
When does learned helplessness tend to occur?
when an individual posses low self-efficacy and an external locus of control
What is self-efficacy?
our belief in our abilities, competence and effectiveness
What is a locus of control?
our belief in whether or not we can influence the events that impact us
What is self-consciousness?
awareness of one's self
What is self-esteem?
beliefs about one's self-worth
What does the Attribution Theory explain?
how we understand our own behaviour and the behaviour of others
According to Attribution Theory, given a set of circumstances, we tend to attribute behaviour to what?
dispositional attribution (internal causes) or situational attribution (external causes)
What 3 factors determine whether we attribute behaviour to internal or external causes?
Explain distinctiveness in terms of Attribution Theory
the extent to which the individual behaves in the same way in similar situations
Explain consensus in terms of Attribution Theory
the extent to which the individual is behaving similarly to other individuals
Explain consistency in terms of Attribution Theory
the extent to which the individual's behaviour is similar every time this situation occurs
What is the fundamental attribution error?
we attribute another person's behaviour to their personality
What is actor/observer bias?
we attribute our own actions to the situation
What is self-serving bias?
we attribute our successes to ourselves, but our failures to others
What is optimism bias?
we believe that bad things happen to other people, but not to ourselves
What is the just world belief?
we believe that bad things happen to others because of their own actions
What is the social facilitation effect?
when the presence of others improves our performance
(this tends to only occur with simple, well-ingrained tasks)
What is deindividualization?
in situations where there is a high degree of arousal and a low degree of personal responsibility, people may lose their sense of restraint and their individual identity in exchange for identifying with a mob mentality
What is the bystander effect?
we are less likely to help a victim when other people are present because everyone feels a diffusion of responsibility
What was study in the case of Kitty Genovese?
the bystander effect
What is social loafing?
when working in a group each person has a tendency to exert less individual effort than if they were working independently
What is groupthink?
when the desire for harmony or conformity in a group of people results in members attempting to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints
When is groupthink most likely to occur?
-the group is overly optimistic and strongly believes in its stance
-the group justifies its own decisions while demonizing those of opponents
-dissenting opinions, information and/or facts are prevented from permeating the group (mind guarding)
-individuals feel pressured to conform and censor their own opinions in favour of consensus (creates an illusion of unanimity)
What is mind guarding?
the process by which dissenting opinions, information and/or facts are prevented from permeating a group
What is group polarization?
when groups tend to intensify the pre-existing views of their members i.e. the average view of a member is accentuated
What is conformity?
when you adjust your behaviour or thinking based on the thinking of others
What were Solomon Asch's experiments about?
they were the experiments comparing the sizes of lines
What is obedience?
when you yield to explicit instructions or orders from an authority
What were Stanley Milgram's experiments about?
they were the experiments with a teacher shocking a learner
What is deviance?
a violation of society's standards of conduct or expectations
What is social stigma?
the extreme disapproval of a person or a group on socially characteristic grounds that distinguish them from other members of a society
What is impression management?
conscious or unconscious process whereby we attempt to manage our own image by influencing the perceptions of others
Where does the dramaturgical perspective stem from?
the theory of symbolic interactionism
What is the dramaturgical perspective?
we imagine ourselves as playing certain roles when interacting with others, we base our presentations of cultural values, norms and expectations with the ultimate goal of presenting an acceptable self to others
we have a front and backstage self
What is persuasion?
a powerful way to influence what others think and do
What are the three key elements of persuasion?
What are message characteristics?
the features of a message itself
i.e. the logic and key points, length and grammatical complexity
What are source characteristics?
characteristics of the person or venue delivering the message
ie expertise, knowledge, trustworthiness, attractiveness
What are target characteristics?
characteristics of the person receiving the message
i.e. self-esteem, intelligence, mood
What does the Elaboration-Likelihood Model propose?
that there are two cognitive routes of persuasion: the central route and the peripheral route
What is the central route of persuasion? What kind of outcome does it lead to?
when people are persuaded by the content of the argument itself
leads to a lasting change that resists fading and counter attacks
What is the peripheral route of persuasion? What kind of outcome does it lead to?
when people focus on superficial or secondary characteristics of the message
leads to a temporary change that is susceptible to fading and counterattacks
When is the audience more likely to use the central processing route?
when they have high motivation and ability to think about the message
When is the audience more likely to use the peripheral processing route?
when they have low motivation ability to think about the message
What experiments did Harry Harlow and Margaret Harlow do?
experiments on monkeys, testing attachment to others
found that they were attached to their mothers for comfort
(originally was thought that it was only for food)
What experiments did Mary Ainsworth do?
"strange situation experiments" about different attachment styles of infants
What are the 2 types of attachment styles of infants that Mary Ainsworth discovered?
securely attached and insecurely attached
Describe securely attached infants
will happily explore in the presence of their mothers, cry when mother leaves, are quickly consoled when she returns
Describe insecurely attached infants
will not explore their surroundings while their mother is present, when mother leaves they will either cry loudly and stay upset or will be indifferent to her departure and return
What is personality?
our thoughts, feelings, ways of thinking about things, beliefs and behaviours
What are the big five traits used to describe personality?
Who developed the psychoanalytic perspective of personality?
What is the psychoanalytic perspective of personality?
theory that asserts that personality is shaped largely by the unconscious
What two things did Freud suggest that human behaviour is motivated by?
libido (life instinct)
What is libido?
drives behaviours focused on pleasure, survive; and avoidance of pain
What is the death instinct?
drives behaviours fueled by the unconscious desire to die or hurt oneself or others
What 3 components did Freud propose the human psyche could be divided into?
Describe the id
responsible for our drives to avoid pain and seek pleasure
Describe the superego
responsible for our moral judgments of right and wrong
strives for perfection
Describe the ego
responsible for our logical thinking and planning
How many stages are there in Freud's psychosexual stages of development?
Describe Freud's first stage of psychosexual development
0 to 1
erogenous zones is the mouth i.e. sucking, chewing, biting
Adult fixation examples:
-orally aggressive (verbally abusive)
-orally passive i.e. smoking overeating
Describe Freud's second stage of psychosexual development
1 to 3
erogenous zone is the anus i.e. bowel and bladder control
Adult fixation examples:
-anal retentive, overly neat/tidy
-anal expulsive, disorganized
Describe Freud's third stage of psychosexual development
3 to 6
erogenous zone is the genitals
Adult fixation examples:
-Oedipus complex (males)
-Electra complex (females)
Describe Freud's fourth stage of psychosexual development
6 to 12
no erogenous zone, sexual feelings are dormant
no adult fixation
Describe Freud's fifth stage of psychosexual development
sexual interests mature
Adult fixation examples:
-difficulty in intimate relationships
How many stages are in Erik Erikson's psychosocial stages of development?
What is Erik Erikson's first stage of psychosocial development?
trust vs mistrust
trust: infant's needs are met
mistrust: infant's needs are not met
What is Erikson's second stage of psychosocial development?
autonomy vs shame
autonomy: children learn self-control
shame: children remain dependent
What is Erikson's third stage of psychosocial development?
initiative vs guilt
initiative: children achieve purpose
guilt: children thwarted in efforts
What is Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development?
industry vs inferiority
industry: children gain competence
inferiority: children feel incompetent
What is Erikson's fifth stage of psychosocial development?
identity vs role confusion
identity: adolescents learn sense of self
role confusion: adolescents lack own identity
What is Erkison's sixth stage of psychosocial development?
intimacy vs isolation
intimacy: YAs develop mature relationships
isolation: YAs unable to create social ties
What is Erikson's seventh stage of psychosocial development?
generativity vs stagnation
generativity: adults contribute to others/society
stagnation: adults feel life is meaningless
What is Erikson's eighth stage of psychosocial development?
integrity vs despair
integrity: adults develop wisdom
despair: adults feel unaccomplished
Which of Erikson's stages of development corresponds to Freud's oral stage?
trust vs mistrust
Which perspective is Erik Erikson?
Which of Erikson's stages corresponds to Freud's anal stage?
autonomy vs shame
Which of Erikson's stages corresponds to Freud's phallic stage?
initiative vs guilt
Which of Erikson's stages corresponds to Freud's latency stage?
industry vs inferiority
Which of Erikson's stages corresponds to Freud's genital stage?
identity vs role confusion
Who was the founding father of behaviourism?
What is the behaviourist perspective of personality?
-personality is a result of learned behaviour patterns based on our environment
-does not take internal thoughts and feelings into account
-the development of a person occurs through classical and operant conditioning
What is meant by the behaviourist perspective of personality being deterministic?
people begin as blank slates and environmental reinforcement and punishment completely determine an individual's subsequent behaviour and personalities
What is the social cognitive perspective of personality?
-personality is a result of reciprocal interactions among behavioural, cognitive and environmental factors
-emphasizes the importance of observational learning, self-efficacy, situational influence and cognitive processes
Who is most associated with social learning or observational (vicarious) learning?
What is the behavioural component of social cognitive theory?
behavioural component includes patterns of classical and operant conditioning AND observational learning
What is the cognitive component of social cognitive theory?
includes the mental processes involved in observational learning and conscious cognitive processes such as self-efficacy beliefs
What is the environmental component of social cognitive theory?
includes situational influences, such as opportunities, rewards, and punishments
What were Albert Bandura's experiments?
observational learning using the Bobo doll
Who developed the humanist perspective of personality?
What is the humanist perspective of personality?
humans are driven by an actualizing tendency to realize their own highest potential and personality conflicts arise when this is somehow thwarted
How did Rogers describe human development?
-as progressing from undifferentiated to differentiated
-development of self-concept was the the main goal
-self-concept was influenced by unconditional and conditional positive regard
-those raised with unconditional positive regard have the opportunity to achieve self-actualization
-those raised with conditional positive regard feel worthy only when they've met certain conditions
-the ideal self is an impossible standard we can never reach
-when the real self and ideal self are incongruent it can cause psychopathy
What is motivation?
the driving force that causes us to act or behave in certain ways
Name 4 factors that influence motivation
What is drive-reduction theory?
suggests that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce that need by engaging in some behaviour
What did Abraham Maslow create?
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Name the components of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs from bottom to top
love and belonging
What is a psychological disorder?
a set of behavioural and/or psychological symptoms that are not in keeping with cultural norms, and that are severe enough to cause significant personal distress and/or significant impairment to social, occupational or personal functioning
Name 5 anxiety disorders
generalized anxiety disorder
post-traumatic stress disorder
What are the general characteristics of anxiety disorders?
fear with both physiological and psychological symptoms
Name 4 mood disorders
major depressive disorder
Name 3 cluster A personality disorders
paranoid personality disorder
schizoid personality disorder
schizotypal personality disorder
Name 4 cluster B personality disorders
antisocial personality disorder
borderline personality disorder
histronic personality disorder
narcissistic personality disorder
Name 3 cluster C personality disorders
avoidant personality disorder
dependent personality disorder
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder disorder
What are the general characteristics of mood disorders?
disturbance in mood or affect
presence or absence of a manic or hypomanic episode (this is what distinguishes categories)
What are the general characteristics of personality disorders?
enduring maladaptive patterns of behaviour and cognition that depart from social norms and are displayed across a variety of contexts, which develop early and cause significant dysfunction and distress
Name 2 psychotic disorders
What are the general characteristics of psychotic disorders?
a general loss of contact with reality, which can include delusions, hallucinations, and psychosis
Name 3 dissociative disorders
dissociative identity disorder
What are the general characteristics of dissociative disorders?
disruptions in memory, awareness, identity, or perception
may be caused by psychological trauma
Name 4 eating disorders
What are the general characteristics of eating disorders?
disruptive eating patterns that negatively impact physical and mental health
Name 4 neurocognitive disorders
What are the general characteristics of neurocognitive disorders?
cognitive decline in memory, problem-solving and perception
Name 3 sleep disorders
Name 5 somatoform disorders
body dysmorphic disorder
What are the general characteristics of somatoform disorders?
symptoms that cannot be explained by a medical condition or substance use and are not attributable to another mental disorder
When does non-associative learning occur?
when an organism is repeatedly exposed to a given stimulus
What is habituation?
becoming accustomed to a stimulus
What is dishabituation?
when a stimulus is removed after an organism has become habituated to it
What is sensitization?
when an organism has increased responsiveness to a repeated stimulus
What is desensitization?
when an organism has a diminished response to a stimulus to which sensitization has occurred
Who was the first to describe classical conditioning?
Using Pavlov's dogs as an example of classical conditioning identify the unconditioned and conditioned stimulus and response
food = unconditioned stimulus
salivating = unconditioned response
bell ringing = conditioned stimulus
salivating = conditioned response
What is generalization?
when stimuli other than the original conditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned response
What is discrimination (in classical conditioning)?
when the conditioned stimulus is distinguished from other stimuli and is the only thing to elicit the conditioned response
What is operant conditioning?
a process in which reinforcement and punishment are used to mild behaviour responses
Who is the most associated with operant conditioning and what type of experiments did he do?
he did experiments with rats in boxes with levers for food and electric shocks
What is the difference between primary and secondary reinforcements and punishments?
primary are things like food, sleep, water etc that you need to survive
secondary are other things ie tokens for prizes or good/bad grades
What is the difference between negative and positive punishments and reinforcements?
positive add something to the situation
negative take something away
What is the difference between ratio and interval reinforcement schedules?
ratio schedules give reinforcement after a certain number of times the wanted action occurs
interval give reinforcement after a certain amount of time
(both can be fixed or variable)
What type of reinforcement schedule is the most resistant to extinction?
variable ratio (VR=variable ratio=very resistant)
What is observational learning? Who identified it and what kind of experiments did he do?
did experiments with the Bobo doll
it is learning through the observation of another's behaviour
What is insight learning?
a process in which the solution to a problem suddenly comes to us in "a flash of insight"
Who first demonstrated insight learning and how did he do it?
did studies with chimps where he placed food out of reach
What is latent learning?
a process in which learning is occurring but it is not immediately obvious, later when needed the learning demonstrates itself
What experiments were first use to demonstrate latent learning?
experiments involving rats in mazes looking for food
What are the serial position effects of memory?
primacy effect (remember first words)
recency effect (remember the last words)
What is encoding with respect to memory?
it is the transfer of sensory memory into our memory system
may involves the coding/processing of information to be stored
Name 7 encoding strategies
semantic (putting in a meaningful context)
dual-encoding (encoding via >1 stimuli)
What are the 3 components of memory in the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of memory?
In the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory how do you get from sensory memory to short-term memory?
During which stages in the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory can you lose information?
How is info kept in the short-term memory stage?
How does info go from short-term memory to long-term memory? How does it go the opposite way?
short-term to long term is encoding
long-term to short-term is retrieval
Describe sensory memory in the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory
contains iconic (visual) and acoustic/echoic memory
How long does iconic memory last?
less than a second
How long does echoic memory last?
Describe short-term member in the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory
has a rehearsal buffer w capacity of ~7 (+/- 2)
decays in 15-30 sec
encoding into STM is primarily acoustic
Describe long-term memory in the Multi-Store Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory
ecoding into LTM is primarily semantic (meaning-making)
What are the 2 large components of long term memory?
What is explicit memory?
also called declarative memory
it is memory with conscious recall
What is implicit memory?
also called non declarative memory
it is memory without conscious recall
What is procedural memory?
a type of implicit memory
learning motor skills, physical actions etc
What are the two types of explicit long-term memory?
episodic and semantic memory
What is episodic memory?
events you have personally experienced
What is procedural memory?
your general knowledge of facts and information
How can you forget from sensory memory?
How can you forget from short-term memory?
How can you forget from long-term memory?
What is displacement with respect to short-term memory?
when new often relevant information in the rehearsal buffer is substituted for the actual information
Name 4 types of retrieval
What is interference?
when competing material makes it more difficult to encode or retrieve information
What are the two types of interference?
proactive and retroactive interference
Describe proactive interference
information that has already been learned interferes with the ability to learn new information
Describe retroactive interference
new information that has already been learned makes it more difficult to retrieve older information
What are source monitoring errors?
source amnesia, forgetting who told you something etc
What are false memories?
creation of memory that never existed
What is anterograde amnesia?
inability to form new memories
What is retrograde amnesia?
inability to retrieve or the loss of stored memories
What part of the brain is involved a lot in memory?
What is attitude?
our evaluation, on a scale from positive to negative of other people, events etc
formed from our past and present experiences
measurable and mutable
impact our behaviours and emotions
What are the 3 components of attitude?
affect (our feelings)
behaviour (our internal and external responses)
cognition (our thoughts and beliefs)
Give 4 situations in which attitude better predicts behaviour
social influences are reduced
general patterns of behaviour are observed (not specific)
specific attitudes are considered (rather than general)
What is the principle of aggregation?
attitude affects a person's aggregate or average behaviour, but not necessarily each isolated act
Give 3 situations in which behaviours are more likely to influence attitude
justification of effort
What was Zimbardo's prison experiment an example of?
behaviours influencing attitude
Who's theory was cognitive dissonance?
What is cognitive dissonance?
when our attitudes and behaviours don't match we feel tension/dissonance and so we make our views match what we've done to reduce the tension
What is consciousness?
the awareness that we have of ourselves, our internal states and the environment
is important for reflection and directs our attention
What controls alertness and arousal in the brain?
the reticular activating system (RAS)
What are the three physiological indicators of a mammal's circadian rhythm?
melatonin released by the pineal gland
serum cortisol levels
Name 3 dyssomnias
What are dyssomnias?
abnormalities in the amount, quality or timing of sleep
What is insomnia?
inability to remain asleep
can stem from chronic stress
What is narcolepsy?
periodic, overwhelming sleepiness during waking periods that usually last less than 5 minutes
What is sleep apnea?
intermittent cessation of breathing during sleep which results in awakening after a minute or two without air
can repeat hundreds of times a night and deprive sufferers of deep sleep
What are parasomnias? Name 2
abnormal behaviours that occur during sleep
somnambulism and night terrors
What is sommniabulism?
usually occurs during slow wave sleep (stage 3) and during the first third of the night
What are night terrors?
usually occur during stage 3 sleep (vs nightmares which come at halloween)
don't remember in the morning
What type of waves does your brain emit when you're awake?
What kind of waves does your brain emit when you're drowsy?
How much of your total sleep in a night is REM?
Are the different stages of sleep spaced evenly throughout the night?
deep sleep is front-loaded, REM and light sleep are back-loaded
there is no REM in the first 90-minute cycle
How long is a sleep cycle?
Give the stages of sleep in order that they occurs
1 2 3 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 1
Is there REM in the 1st 90 minute sleep cycle?
When does stage 4 of sleep drop out? Stage 3?
stage 4 drops out after 2 cycles
stage 3 after 3
Describe stage 1 of sleep
slow rolling eye movements
Describe stage 2 of sleep
sleep spindle and k-complex
no eye movement
decreased temp, HR and respiration
Describe stages 3 and 4 of sleep
no eye movement
heart and digestion slow
growth hormones secreted (from pituitary)
Describe REM sleep
similar to beta waves but more jagged
when most dreams occur
bursts of quick eye movements
almost no activity - paradoxical sleep
What is REM rebound?
after not getting enough REM your body will make up for it in subsequent nights
Give 3 examples of depressants
What is the mechanism of action of depressants?
depress the central nervous system
especially the fight or flight reflex
What are some effects of depressants?
impaired motor control
overdoses can lead to death
Give 4 examples of stimulants
What is the mechanism of action of stimulants?
increases release or inhibits reuptake of neurotransmitters (or both)
What are some effects of stimulants?
speed up body functions i.e. breathing, heart etc
rush/high followed by a crash
Name 2 types of hallucinogens
What is the mechanism of action of hallucinogens?
distorts perceptions in the absence of sensory input
What are some effects of hallucinogens?
slowed reaction time
What determines physical vs psychological dependance?
How is addiction defined?
as compulsive drug use despite harmful consequences
characterized by am inability to stop using the drug, failure to meet work, social or family obligations and sometimes tolerance and withdrawal
What are the 3 components of emotion?
What are the universal emotions? Who expresses them?
they are expressed by all normally developing or developed humans across all cultures
What is the Yerkes-Dodson law?
for non-complex tasks a high level of arousal is okay, for complex tasks lower levels of arousal are better
Explain the James-Lange theory of emotion
"common sense view"
emotion inducing stimulus
gives physiological AND behavioural response which leads to cognitive interpretation and then labelling of emotion
Explain the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
emotion inducing stimulus
gives physiological response and cognitive interpretation at the same time
leads to behavioural response and the labelling of the emotion
Explain the Schachter-Singer theory of emotion
also called the two-factor cognitive theory
emotion inducing stimulus
gives physiological response
which leads to cognitive interpretation
and then gives behavioural response and labelling of emotion
Name the parts of the limbic system
What is the role of the thalamus in the limbic system?
relay station for 4 of the senses (not smell)
What is the role of the hypothalamus in the limbic system?
motivated behaviours ie hunger, thirst, sex drive
What is the role of the frontal lobe in the limbic system?
executive function and control of emotion
What is the role of the olfactory bulb in the limbic system?
What is the role of amygdala in the limbic system?
What is the role of the hippocampus in the limbic system?
What is our physiological response to acute stress? Chronic stress?
acute = SNS (then PNS)
chronic = cortisol
What is Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome?
alarm > resistance > exhaustion (resulting in sickness)
Name 3 types of stressors
significant life changes
What are catastrophes?
unpredictable, large-scale events that include natural disasters and wartime events and affect many people
Can positive significant life changes cause stress?
What is absolute threshold?
the lowest level of a stimulus we can detect 50% of the time
What is a difference threshold?
the minimum difference between two stimuli we can detect 50% of the time
also called the just noticeable difference
What is Weber's law?
human responses to physiological stimuli are generally proportional to a constant magnitude for a given sensory stimulus
different sensory stimuli and different discriminatory tasks have different difference thresholds
we are more accurate at detecting change when the initial intensity of the stimulus us weak, rather than strong
What is signal detection theory? What are the 4 possible outcomes?
proposes a method for quantifying a person's ability to detect a given stimulus amongst other, non-important stimuli
outcomes: hit, miss, false alarm, correct rejection
What is required to detect a stimulus according to signal detection theory?
acquisition of information
application of criteria
What does accuracy of detecting a stimulus rely on according to signal detection theory?
What does a receiver operating characteristic curve graph? What does it demonstrate?
displays hit rate vs false alarm rate
area under the graph is the person's accuracy
What kind of processing does Gestalt Psychology focus on?
Name 2 key Gestalt principles and any laws within them
figure and ground
law of proximity
law of similarity (i.e. colour)
law of continuity (i.e. sin wave vs semi-circles)
law of connectedness
law of closure (closing shapes)
What is the very broad definition of cognition?
how we process information i.e. receiving, storing, thought processes for language etc
What is Baddeley's Model of Working Memory?
an explanation of how our 3 short-term sensory stores interact with the central executive, which controls the flow of info to and from the sensory stores
What are the 3 short-term sensory stores in Baddeley's model of working memory? Where do they each lead to?
phonological loop to semantic verbal memory
visuospatial sketchpad to semantic visual memory
episodic buffer to episodic memory
What does the central executive do?
coordination of the slave systems
shifting between tasks or retrieval strategies
selective attention and inhibition
What are the two possibilities for new information and integration into our schemas?
assimilate- interpret new info based on our current schemas
accommodate- incorporate new info and experiences into our schemas
What did Jean Piaget contribute to psychology?
his 4 stages of cognitive development
Describe Piaget's first stage of cognitive development
child experiences the world directly through senses and motor movement
child learns object permanence
child has stranger anxiety
Describe Piaget's second stage of cognitive development
child can represent things with words and images, but uses intuitive, not logical, reasoning
like to pretend play a lot
Describe Piaget's third stage of cognitive development
child thinks logically and performs simple mental manipulations with concrete concepts
Describe Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development
person can reason abstractly, solve hypothetical problems, deduce consequences etc
ie have abstract logic
also learn moral reasoning
What is an algorithm?
a step-by-step procedure that exhausts all possible options but guarantees a solution
What is a heuristic?
a mental rule-of-thumb, shortcut or guideline that can be applied to problem solving
What is confirmation bias?
when we seek evidence to support our conclusion or ideas more than we seek evidence that will refute them
also occurs when we interpret neutral or ambiguous evidence as supporting our beliefs
What is fixation?
when we have structured a problem in our mind a certain way, even if that way is ineffective, and then are unable to restructure it
What is a mental set?
our tendency to approach situations in a certain way because that method worked for us in the past
What is functional fixedness?
a mental bias that limits our perspective for how an object can be used based on how that object is traditionally used
What is the availability heuristic?
when we rely on immediate examples that come to mind when trying to make a decision or judgment
i.e. you overestimate the likelihood of something happening because you can think of examples of it
What is the representativeness heuristic?
when we estimate the likelihood of an event y comparing it to an existing prototype (kind of like a stereotype) in our minds
What is a prototype?
what we think is the most relevant or typical example of a particular event or object
What is the behaviourist model of language acquisition?
infants are trained to learn language through operant conditioning
Who is Noam Chomsky?
linguist that proposed Universal Grammar/Language Acquisition Device
WHat is Universal Grammar? What is another name for it?
humans are born with an innate ability to learn language
all normally-developing humans learn language when exposed to it
there are critical periods
also called Language Acquisition Device
(proposed by Noam Chomsky)
What are the functions of the frontal lobe of the brain?
regulation of emotion
What does the parietal lobe do?
space is allotted based on sensitivity
What does the occipital lobe do?
What does the cerebellum deal with?
What does the temporal lobe deal with?
Where is Broca's Area?
inferior frontal gyrus of dominant hemisphere (usually left)
What is Broca's Area associated with?
What happens if someone's Broca's Area is damaged?
non-fluent aphasia with intact comprehension
i.e. they know what you're saying but they don't have fluent speech
Where is Wernicke's Area?
posterior superior temporal gyrus
What is Wernicke's Area associated with?
understanding written and spoken language