Flashcards in Bio 5 Deck (26):
What is a teratoma?
tumor formed with tissues from multiple germ layers
What are allosomes?
What is synapsis?
when homologous chromosomes pair in prophase I so they can cross over
What mediates synapsis?
SYCP2 and SYCP3 on each of the homologous chromosomes and SYCP1 with other proteins in between the two
What is the rule of multiplication?
to find the chance of both of two independent events happening multiply their their odds
What is the rule of addition?
to find the chance of either of two events happening add their odds together and subtract the probability of them happening together i.e. A + B - AB=probability
What is a chi-square test used to compare?
observed and expected data
What is incomplete dominance?
when a heterozygote is a blend mix of both alleles
What is codominance?
when two alleles are both expressed but not blended
What is pleiotropism?
when a gene's expression alters many different, seemingly unrelated aspects of the organism's total phenotype
What is penetrance?
the likelihood that a person with a given genotype will express the expected phenotype
What is epistasis?
expression of alleles for one gene is dependent on a different gene
How do you find recombinant frequency?
# of recombinants divided by the total number of offspring
Do autosomal dominant genes skip generations?
(autosomal recessive can)
What is a good way to determine if a gene is X-linked or autosomal?
X-linked are usually expressed more by males
What shape are males and females in a pedigree?
males are squares
females are circles
What are the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions?
there is no mutation
there is no migration
there is no natural selection
there is random mating
population is sufficiently large to prevent random drift in allele frequencies
What is the Hardy-Weinberg law?
that the frequencies of alleles in the gene pool (genetic info of a population) will not change over time, provided that the assumptions are true
p^2 +2pq + q^2 = 1
How many generations does it take to get back to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
What is cladogenesis?
one species diversifies and becomes two or more
What is anagenesis?
one species becomes another by changing so much that if you went back in time it would be unable to reproduce sexually with its ancestors
What is the order of binomial classification categories?
What are proteinoids?
polypeptides made through abiotic synthesis
What are protobionts?
microspheres (made of proteinoids), liposomes and coacervates (polypepetides, nucleic acids and polysaccharides)
What are coacervates?
made of polypeptides, nucleic acids and polysaccharides