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Flashcards in Bio 5 Deck (26):
1

What is a teratoma?

tumor formed with tissues from multiple germ layers

2

What are allosomes?

sex chromosomes

3

What is synapsis?

when homologous chromosomes pair in prophase I so they can cross over

4

What mediates synapsis?

synaptonemal complex
SYCP2 and SYCP3 on each of the homologous chromosomes and SYCP1 with other proteins in between the two

5

What is the rule of multiplication?

to find the chance of both of two independent events happening multiply their their odds

6

What is the rule of addition?

to find the chance of either of two events happening add their odds together and subtract the probability of them happening together i.e. A + B - AB=probability

7

What is a chi-square test used to compare?

observed and expected data

8

What is incomplete dominance?

when a heterozygote is a blend mix of both alleles

9

What is codominance?

when two alleles are both expressed but not blended

10

What is pleiotropism?

when a gene's expression alters many different, seemingly unrelated aspects of the organism's total phenotype

11

What is penetrance?

the likelihood that a person with a given genotype will express the expected phenotype

12

What is epistasis?

expression of alleles for one gene is dependent on a different gene

13

How do you find recombinant frequency?

# of recombinants divided by the total number of offspring

14

Do autosomal dominant genes skip generations?

no
(autosomal recessive can)

15

What is a good way to determine if a gene is X-linked or autosomal?

X-linked are usually expressed more by males

16

What shape are males and females in a pedigree?

males are squares
females are circles

17

What are the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions?

there is no mutation
there is no migration
there is no natural selection
there is random mating
population is sufficiently large to prevent random drift in allele frequencies

18

What is the Hardy-Weinberg law?

that the frequencies of alleles in the gene pool (genetic info of a population) will not change over time, provided that the assumptions are true
p^2 +2pq + q^2 = 1
q=recessive
p=dominant

19

How many generations does it take to get back to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

one

20

What is cladogenesis?

one species diversifies and becomes two or more

21

What is anagenesis?

one species becomes another by changing so much that if you went back in time it would be unable to reproduce sexually with its ancestors

22

What is the order of binomial classification categories?

domain
kingdom
phylum
class
order
family
genus
species

23

What are proteinoids?

polypeptides made through abiotic synthesis

24

What are protobionts?

microspheres (made of proteinoids), liposomes and coacervates (polypepetides, nucleic acids and polysaccharides)

25

What are coacervates?

made of polypeptides, nucleic acids and polysaccharides

26

Describe the early atmosphere

reducing environment containing H2O, CO, CO2 and N2
NO OXYGEN!