Biochem - Fat Soluble Vitamins Flashcards Preview

Block 5 Material > Biochem - Fat Soluble Vitamins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biochem - Fat Soluble Vitamins Deck (19):
1

What are the differences between fat and water soluble vitamins?

Fat soluble vitamins:
-Require bile for digestion and absorption
-travel through lymphatic system
-many require transport proteins in bloodstream
-excess is stored in liver and adipose tissue
-not readily excreted (so risk of toxicity is greater)

2

What is the precursor for Vitamin A?

Beta carotene

3

Vitamin A's role in cell differentiation, reproduction, and growth :

Epithelial cells
Goblet cells
Sperm development
Normal fetal development
Growth of children - bone remodeling
Antioxidant

4

3 forms of vitamin A in the body

Retinal - vision
Retinol - reproduction
Retinoic acid - growth

5

Vitamin A deficiency

Measles
Night blindness
Blindness
Keratinization

6

Vitamin A toxicity

Bone defects
Birth defects

*no effect on acne

7

Vitamin D forms

Calciferol

D2 from plants (ergocalciferol)
D3 from animals (cholecalciferol)

Not an essential nutrient

8

Roles of Vitamin D

Bone growth
Protects against cognitive decline
Can enhance or suppress gene activity

9

Vitamin D deficiency

Production of calbindin, a protein that binds calcium in intestinal cells
-so this can create Ca deficiency

Rickets (children, bones bend)

Osteomalacia (adults, soft, brittle, flexible, deformed bones)

Osteoporosis

10

Vitamin D toxicity

Raises blood [Ca]
Forms stones in soft tissues
May harden blood vessels
Can cause death

11

Sources of vitamin D

Sunlight
Oily fish
Egg yolks
Fortified milk

12

Subgroups of Vitamin E?
Compounds of each?
Which are maintained in the body?

Tocopherols

Tocoyrienols

Each contains 4 compounds:
Alpha
Beta
Gamma
Delta

*only alpha tocopherol maintained in the body

13

Vitamin E is useful because__

Antioxidant properties

-protects cells
-heart disease and protection of LDLs

14

Vitamin E deficiency

Fat malabsorption
Hemolytic anemia
Neuromuscular dysfunction

15

2 conditions respond to Vitamin E treatment.

Fibrocystic breast disease
Intermittent claudication

16

Vitamin E toxicity

Rare
-liver regulates concentrations

High doses may interfere with vitamin K activity
-hemorrhage

17

Primary action of Vitamin K?
Other actions?

Blood clotting

Prothrombin

Other:
Metabolism of bone proteins

18

Vitamin K deficiency

Primary deficiency is rare

Secondary deficiency:
Fat absorption falters
Some drugs alter synthesis and action


Newborns have a sterile intestinal tract
They are given a single dose of vitamin K at birth

19

High doses of Vitamin K reduce ___

effectiveness of anticoagulant drugs