Flashcards in Biochem - Minerals And Supplements Deck (42):
Inorganic elements cannot be destroyed by __
*they ALWAYS maintain their chemical identity
One of the ways the kidneys regulate acid-base balance is by __
Excreting H+ in exchange for Na+
High salt correlates with increased __ excretion, which leads to __
Is chloride an essential nutrient?
What does it help maintain?
Fluid and electrolyte balance
Diets low in K raise __
Risk of stroke
What is the most abundant mineral in your body?
Calcium disease prevention
Major minerals, in order of prevalence in the body
Trace minerals in the body
Calcitonin inhibits __
Is signaled by __
Is secreted by __
1. Activation of vitamin D
2. Calcium reabsorption in the kidneys
3. Limits Calcium absorption in the intestines
4. Osteoclast cells
- all of these lower blood calcium levels
- signaled by rising blood calcium
- secreted by the thyroid gland
Falling blood calcium signals __
The parathyroid glands to secrete parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid hormone stimulates ___
1. Activation of Vitamin D
2. Calcium reabsorption in the kidney
3. Osteoclast cells to break down bone and release calcium
Vitamin D stimulates ___
1. Calcium reabsorption in the kidneys
2. Calcium absorption in the intestines
3. Osteoclast cells
True or false: sodium deficiency is caused by inadequate intake of sodium
Too much water
Roles of phosphorus in the body
1. Part of major buffer system, DNA and RNA
2. Part of energy metabolism
3. Part of enzyme activation
4. Part of cell membranes and helps in lipid transport
Roles of magnesium in the body
1. Maintains bone health
2. Catalyst in ATP production
3. Inhibits muscle contraction
4. Inhibits blood clotting
Roles of iron in the body
1. Cofactor in redox rxns
2. Part of electron carriers
3. Hemoglobin and myoglobin
Iron switches back and forth between __
Ferrous iron and ferric iron
Fe++ and Fe+++
What is ferritin?
Iron storage in small intestine
What is transferrin?
Iron transport protein
Absorption enhancers for nonheme iron
Some acids and sugars
Heme vs nonheme iron (%)
Heme iron accounts for 10% of the average daily intake
All iron derived from plants is ___
40% is heme
60% is nonheme
Factors that inhibit iron absorption
What is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide?
What is anemia?
Severe depletion of iron stores
-low hemoglobin concentrations
In iron deficiency, blood cells are __
What is hereditary hemochromatosis?
Genetic failure to control iron absorption
Deficiency or resistance of hepcidin
Causes: frequent blood transfusions, supplements
Apathy, lethargy, fatigue
Where are the highest concentrations of zinc found in the body?
Roles of zinc in the body
1. Stabilizes cell membranes and DNA
2. Supports proteins
3. Synthesis, storage, and release of insulin from pancreas
4. Interacts with platelets in blood clotting
5. Thyroid Hormone function
6. Needed to produce the active form of Vitamin A
What 2 proteins are required for transport of zinc in the blood?
GI tract concerts iodine in food to __
Roles of iodine in the body
Part of Thyroid hormones
What is goiter?
When thyroid cells expand
Due to iodine
What is cretinism?
Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy
Extreme irreversible metal and physical retardation
What is goitrogen?
Preventable mental retardation and brain damage
Roles of selenium in the body
Part of proteins
-substitute for sulfur in some AAs
What is Menkes disease?
Intestinal cells absorb copper but cannot release it into circulation
Too much copper
What is Wilson's disease?
Copper accumulates in the liver and the brain