Biochem - Minerals And Supplements Flashcards Preview

Block 5 Material > Biochem - Minerals And Supplements > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biochem - Minerals And Supplements Deck (42):
1

Inorganic elements cannot be destroyed by __

Heat
Air
Acid
Mixing

*they ALWAYS maintain their chemical identity

2

One of the ways the kidneys regulate acid-base balance is by __

Excreting H+ in exchange for Na+

3

High salt correlates with increased __ excretion, which leads to __

Ca++

Bone loss/osteoporosis

4

Is chloride an essential nutrient?
What does it help maintain?

Yes
Fluid and electrolyte balance

5

Diets low in K raise __

BP

Risk of stroke
Kidney stones
Muscle weakness
Glucose intolerance

6

What is the most abundant mineral in your body?

Calcium

7

Calcium disease prevention

Hypertension
Blood cholesterol
Diabetes
Colon cancer
Obesity

8

Major minerals, in order of prevalence in the body

Calcium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sulfur
Sodium
Chloride
Magnesium

9

Trace minerals in the body

Iron
Zinc
Copper
Manganese
Iodine
Selenium

10

Calcitonin inhibits __
Is signaled by __
Is secreted by __

1. Activation of vitamin D
2. Calcium reabsorption in the kidneys
3. Limits Calcium absorption in the intestines
4. Osteoclast cells

- all of these lower blood calcium levels
- signaled by rising blood calcium
- secreted by the thyroid gland

11

Falling blood calcium signals __

The parathyroid glands to secrete parathyroid hormone

12

Parathyroid hormone stimulates ___

1. Activation of Vitamin D
2. Calcium reabsorption in the kidney
3. Osteoclast cells to break down bone and release calcium

13

Vitamin D stimulates ___

1. Calcium reabsorption in the kidneys
2. Calcium absorption in the intestines
3. Osteoclast cells

14

True or false: sodium deficiency is caused by inadequate intake of sodium

False

Too much water
Hyponatremia

15

Roles of phosphorus in the body

1. Part of major buffer system, DNA and RNA

2. Part of energy metabolism

3. Part of enzyme activation

4. Part of cell membranes and helps in lipid transport

16

Roles of magnesium in the body

1. Maintains bone health
2. Catalyst in ATP production
3. Inhibits muscle contraction
4. Inhibits blood clotting

17

Roles of iron in the body

1. Cofactor in redox rxns
2. Part of electron carriers
3. Hemoglobin and myoglobin

18

Iron switches back and forth between __

Ferrous iron and ferric iron
Fe++ and Fe+++

19

What is ferritin?

Iron storage in small intestine

20

What is transferrin?

Iron transport protein

21

Absorption enhancers for nonheme iron

MFP
Vitamin C
Some acids and sugars

22

Heme vs nonheme iron (%)

Heme iron accounts for 10% of the average daily intake

23

All iron derived from plants is ___

Nonheme iron

Animals:
40% is heme
60% is nonheme

24

Factors that inhibit iron absorption

Phytates
Calcium
Polyphenols
Individual variations

25

What is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide?

Iron

26

What is anemia?

Severe depletion of iron stores

-low hemoglobin concentrations

27

In iron deficiency, blood cells are __

Smaller

28

What is hereditary hemochromatosis?

Causes?

Symptoms?

Genetic failure to control iron absorption
Deficiency or resistance of hepcidin
Iron overload

Causes: frequent blood transfusions, supplements

Apathy, lethargy, fatigue

29

Where are the highest concentrations of zinc found in the body?

Muscle
Bone

30

Roles of zinc in the body

1. Stabilizes cell membranes and DNA
2. Supports proteins
3. Synthesis, storage, and release of insulin from pancreas
4. Interacts with platelets in blood clotting
5. Thyroid Hormone function
6. Needed to produce the active form of Vitamin A

31

What 2 proteins are required for transport of zinc in the blood?

Albumin
Transferrin

32

GI tract concerts iodine in food to __

Iodide

33

Roles of iodine in the body

Part of Thyroid hormones

34

What is goiter?

When thyroid cells expand

Due to iodine

35

What is cretinism?

Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy

Extreme irreversible metal and physical retardation

36

What is goitrogen?

Antithyroid substance

Preventable mental retardation and brain damage

37

Roles of selenium in the body

Antioxidant
Part of proteins
-substitute for sulfur in some AAs

38

Selenium deficiency

Keshan disease
-heart disease
-china

39

What is Menkes disease?

Intestinal cells absorb copper but cannot release it into circulation

Too much copper

40

What is Wilson's disease?

Copper accumulates in the liver and the brain

41

Manganese toxicity

Miners
Inhalation
Brain disease

42

Fluoride toxicity

Fluorosis
Stains