Bioenergetics Flashcards Preview

The Human Cell > Bioenergetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bioenergetics Deck (67)
Loading flashcards...
1

List four things that cells need to survive

1. carbon based molecular materials 2. catalysts 3. information/instructions 4. energy

2

list four types of carbon based molecular materials that cells may use

lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids and nucleotides

3

what is the general formula of a lipid

cnh2n+1o2

4

what is the general formula of a carbohydrate

cnh2no2

5

what are the termini of amino acids

a +nh3 and a coo- end

6

describe the general structure of nucleotides

a ribose/deoxyribose, + nitrogenous base + phosphate groups

7

what is the monomer of a lipid

fatty acid

8

what is a polymer of a lipid

di/triglyceride

9

what is a monomer of a carbohydrate

monosaccharide

10

what is a polymer of a carbohydrate

polysaccharide

11

what is the polymer of an amino acid called

polypeptide/ protein

12

what is the polymer of a nucleotide called

a nucleic acid

13

how do enzymes speed up the reactions in cells

by providing an alternative energy pathway - lowering the activation energy

14

what is anabolism

assembly of carbon based molecular materials

15

what is catabolism

the degradation/breakdown / disassembly of carbon based molecular materials

16

list what all living entities must be able to do

harness energy, respire, grow and develop, reproduce, respond to stimuli

17

there are six reasons why cells need energy, list these

biosynthesis, active transport of solutes, active transport of ions, mechanical work, heat, light

18

what is biosynthesis

the formation of new molecules/ structures

19

why is biosynthesis needed

to maintain structures and make new structures

20

what happens in the active transport of solutes

movement of molecules against their concentration / electrochemical gradient

21

what happens in the active transport of ions

movement against the voltage gradient to maintain the membrane potential

22

what is mechanical work

physical changes to the cell shape

23

give an example of mechanical work that cells require energy for

muscle contraction, movement of cell structures, e.g. cilia/flagella or the mitotic spindle

24

heat is the by product of what type of reactions

exergonic reactions

25

what percentage of metabolic energy is used to maintain the body temperature

70%

26

what is bioluminescene

bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism

27

name a type of jellyfish which produces light

aequorea victoria

28

what is the protein which allows the jellyfish to produce light

GFP - green fluorescent protein (aequorin)

29

how do we quantify energy

calories

30

define the term calorie

the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree at a pressure of 1 atmosphere

31

how many calories in a kilocalorie

a thousand obvs

32

how many calories is a nutritional calorie

1kcal

33

how many calories in a joule

0.239 calories

34

what are the two major sources of energy in the biosphere

light energy and chemical energy

35

what are the two major sources of carbon in the biosphere

carbon dioxide and catabolism of other organic molecules

36

what do you call organisms which use the energy from photons of light

phototrophs

37

what do we call organisms that use light energy to synthesis organic molecules from carbon dioxide via photosynthesis

photoautotrophs

38

what do we call organisms that use light energy plus organic substrates

photoheterotrophs

39

what do we call organisms that use energy derived from chemical bonds for their energy

chemotrophs

40

what do we call organisms that use chemical energy to synthesise organic molecules from carbon dioxide

chemoautotrophs

41

what do we call organisms that use chemical energy plus organic substrates for their energy

chemoheterotrophs

42

how does energy flow through the biosphere

as electrons via oxidation and reduction

43

what is oxidation

the loss of electrons

44

what is reduction

the gain of electrons

45

in oxidation and reduction, energy passes from the _____ which gets _____ to a _________ which gets _____

energy passes from the substrate which gets oxidised to a nucleotide cofactor which gets reduced

46

give some examples of nucleotide cofactora

nad+/nadp+/fad

47

electrons generally transfer energy accompanied by a

proton

48

a proton + an electron is

atomic hydrogen

49

a proton plus two electrons is a

hydride ion

50

nad+ + h- -->

NADH

51

give an example of chemoheterotrophic fuel oxidation

complete oxidation of glucose

52

how is cellular energy stored

as atp

53

what are the three bonds which can be broken in a molecule of atp

gamma, beta and alpha

54

in atp which bond has the greatest amount of energy and which one has the least

gamma - -40.6kj/mol , beta - -30.5, alpha - -12.6

55

give an example of photoautotrophic fuel synthesis

photosynthesis of glucose

56

anabolic reactions ____ energy

require

57

catabolic reactions ____ energy

liberate

58

the product of one reaction is often a ____ in an alternative metabolic pathway

substrate

59

what is thermodynamics

a branch of physics focused on the relationship between heat/temp and energy/work - originally in abiotic systems

60

what is bioenergetics

a branch of biochemistry concerned with energy flow (applied thermodynamics) in living systems

61

when focusing on systems and thermodynamics, what is the restricted portion of the universe being considered at any given moment called

the system

62

when focusing on systems and thermodynamics, what is the rest of the universe other than the system referred to as

the surroundings

63

energy can be added to or lost from the system to that systems surroundings - the universe in what type of system

an open system

64

energy remains within that system, can be neither added nor lost from the system to that system's surroundings in what type of system

a closed system

65

what is the first law of thermodynamics called

the law of conservation of energy

66

what does the law of conservation of energy which is the first law of thermodynamics state

that the total energy of a closed system remains constant - energy is conserved - it cannot be created or destroyed it can only change form

67

what happens if the energy into a biological system is greater than the energy out

it will store calories as glycogen or adipose tissue