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The Human Cell > Cell Organelles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Organelles Deck (118)
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1

What are cells?

Small units bound by a plasma membrane

2

Cells contain an aqueous fluid called

the cytosol

3

Cells contain chemicals in the

cytoplasm

4

Cells have structural support called the

cytoskeleton

5

All cells are surrounded by a

plasma membrane

6

The plasma membrane is a

single membrane

7

The plasma membrane is

selectively permeable

8

What is the difference between the intracellular and extracellular fluid?

The intracellular fluid is found inside the cell and the extracellular fluid is found outside the cell

9

What is the cytosol?

The aqueous component of the cytoplasm of a cell within which various organelles and particles are suspended

10

The plasma membrane is a complex of...

lipids
proteins
carbohydrates

11

List four carbohydrates which make up the plasma membrane

glycolipids
glycoproteins
peptidoglycans
glycosaminoglycans

12

Why is the plasma membrane selectively permeable?

because lipids are amphipathic

13

What does amphipathic mean?

A molecule especially a protein which has both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic part

14

What model is used to describe the plasma membrane?

The fluid mosaic model

15

What allows hydrophilic solutes to be transported across the plasma membrane?

Integral and peripheral membrane proteins

16

What are peripheral membrane proteins?

Peripheral membrane proteins stay on the perimeter of other membrane proteins

17

What are integral proteins?

Proteins integrated into the membrane

18

What are transmembrane proteins?

Proteins that transfer across the entire membrane

19

What is a cell wall?

Surrounds the plasma membrane - limits passage of molecules into / out of the cell

20

What are plant cell walls composed of?

Cellulose

21

What is cellulose made of?

Complex carbohydrates which have to be digested by cellulase - animals don't have this

22

What are bacteria cell walls composed of?

Peptidoglycan

23

Bacterial cell walls can be surrounded by a

gelatinous polysaccharide layer - glycocalyx as either capsule or slime layer

24

Bacterial cell walls can be stained to distinguish between gram pos and gram neg by which staining method?

Gram stain

25

What is the difference in layers to gram pos and gram neg bacteria?

Gram positive bacteria have a single layer in the cell wall, gram negative bacteria have several layers to the cell wall

26

What are the cell surface appendages and where do they attach?

Attach to the plasma mem/cell wall
- villi
-cilia
-flagella

27

Which cell surface appendages help move the cell?

Flagella or cilia

28

Which cell surface appendage help move extracellular fluid

Cilia

29

Which cell surface appendages aid in increasing the cell's surface area?

Villi/microvilli

30

What is the function of the nucleus?

Contains the cells blueprint for proteins -the DNA