Cell Cycle and Cell Division Flashcards Preview

The Human Cell > Cell Cycle and Cell Division > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Cycle and Cell Division Deck (26)
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1

Why is cell division so important?

For the continuity of life, passes genetic information to the next generation, universal, unicellular to multicellular

2

what is the aim of mitosis

to produce to genetically identical daughter cells

3

what type of reproduction occurs in mitosis

asexual

4

what type of reproduction occurs in meiosis

sexual

5

what is interphase in the cell cycle

the resting phase

6

what does diploid mean

diploid is a cell or organism that has paired chromosomes one from each parent. in humans, cells other than the human sex cells are diploid and have 23 pairs of chromosomes

7

what does homologous mean

homologous chromosomes are similar but not identical. each carries the same genes in the same order, but the alleles for each trait may not be the same

8

list the stages of the cell cycle

g1, 2 phase, g2 and m phase

9

what does g1 stand for

growth phase 1

10

what does s phase stand for

dna synthesis phase

11

what does g2 stand for

growth phase 2

12

what does m phase stand for

mitosis

13

what generally happens in the g1 phase, four points

1. general dna checking/repair, 2. synthesis of rna and protein, 3. generation of new organelles 4. increase in cell size

14

what is the overall aim of the g1 phase

to recover from mitosis and to prepare for the s phase

15

what is the overall aim of the s phase

to replicate the genome

16

what occurs during the s phase

DNA synthesis takes place and chromosome duplication

17

what is a karyotype

a karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. the term is also used for the complete set of chromosomes in a species or individual organism

18

what does karyotyping show you

species variation, size shape, position of centromere

19

what could alterations of the karyotype lead to

genetic disorders

20

what is the overall aim of the g2 phase

to prepare for mitosis

21

what does g2 stand for

growth phase 2

22

what occurs in g2, list four things

1. second round of dna proof reading 2. rna and protein synthesis resumes 3. cell confirms the number of chromosomes and the organelles present 4. micrutubule synthesis

23

what is a microtubule

a filamentous intracellular structure that is responsible for various kinds of movement in eukaryotic cells

24

what occurs in the m phase, three things

division of sister chromatids, division of the nucleus, division of the cytoplasm

25

what is the division of the cytoplasm called

cytokinesis

26

what are the daughter cells like after the m phase of mitosis

they are genetically identical