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Flashcards in Biology 2 Deck (511):
1

What is embriology

the study of the development of a unicellular zygote into a complete multicellular organism

2

What are the steps of early development of vertebrates

fertilization
cleavage
gastriculation

3

What is fertilization

when an egg is entered into by a sperm

4

What is the window for fertilization for the egg

it can be fertilized between 12 and 24 hours after ovulation

5

where does fertilization occur

in the lateral, widest part of the oviduct or fallopian tube

6

What happens if more than one egg is fertilized

fraternal twins may be conceived

7

What is cleavage

early rapid mitotic division

8

what does cleavage do

leads to an increase in cell number without a corresponding growth in cell protoplasm (volume is constant)

9

What are the benefits of more cells to less cytoplasm created by cleavage

in increases the gas and nutrient exchange

10

What is an indeterminate cleavage

a cleavage that results in cell that maintain the ability to develop into a complete organism

11

what is a result of indeterminate cleavage

identical twins

12

What is a determinate cleavage

a cleavage that results in cell who have different pathways that are determined at an early developmental stage

13

What is differentiation (embryology)

the specialization of cells that occurs during development

14

When does the first complete cleavage of the zygot occur

32 hours after fertilization

15

when does the 2nd and third cleavage of the zygote occue

60 and 72 hours after fertilization

16

how many cells does the embryo have after the first 3 cleavages

8

17

when does the zygote enter the uterus

after the third cleavage (72 hours)

18

What is the zygote called when it gets to the uterus

embryo

19

What is it called when the embryo continues to divide until a solid ball of cells forms

a Morula

20

What is blastulation

when the morula develops a fluid filled cavity called the blastocoel

21

What is it called when the morula becomes a hollow sphere of cells

a blastula

22

when does gastriculation occur

when the blastula has implanted in the uterine wall

23

What is gastriculation

when the blastula's cells migrate to form a three layered structure called the gastrula.

24

What are the three layers of the gastrula called

Ectoderm
Endoderm
Mesoderm

25

What does the ectoderm turn into

The Integument,
the lens of the eye,
the retina, and
the nervous system

26

What is the integument

epidermis, hair, nails, epithelium of the nose, mouth and anal canal

27

What does the Endoderm turn into

epithelial linings of the digestive and respiratory tracts,
parts of the liver
pancreas
thyroid
bladder lininig

28

What does the mesoderm turn into

musculoskeletal system
circulatory system
excretory system
goands
connective tissue
portions of the digestive and respiratory organs

29

What are the two types of early developent

external
internal placnetal
inter nonplacental

30

What are some examples of external development

fish eggs in water
reptile, bird eggs on land

31

What is different between the fertilization of fish eggs in water and reptile/bird eggs on land

fish eggs are fertilized externally
bird/reptile eggs are fertilized internally and then the egg is laid

32

How does a fish egg survive

the embryo develops within the egg feeding on the nutrients stored in the yolk

33

What is the purpose of the egg shell

to protect the developing embryo

34

What are the parts of an egg

Chorion
Allantois
Amnion
yolk Sac

35

What is the chorion of an egg, and what does it do

it is the lining on the inside of the shell, it permits gas exchange

36

What is the Allantois of an egg and what does it do

a saclike structure involved in respiration and excretion, it contains numerous blood vessels to transport O2, CO2, water, salt and nitrogenous waste

37

What is the amnion of an egg and what does it do

a membrane that encloses the amniotic fluid which provides an aquoeus environment that protects the develooping embryo from shock

38

What is the yolk sac of the egg and what does it do

it encloses the yolk, blood vessles in the yolk sac trasfer food to the developing embryo

39

What is a case of nonplacental internal development

marsupials and some tropical fish.

40

What happens wwith nonplacental internal development

the exchange of food and oxygen between the mother and young is limited so offspring may be born very young

41

What happens in placental internal development

the fetus receives oxygen and nutrients from it's mother through a specialized circulatory system.

42

What does the placental circulatory system do besides deliver oxygen and nutrients to the fetus

it removes carbon dioxide and metabolic waste products

43

What are the two key components of the placental circulatory system

the placenta and the umbilical cord

44

When do the placenta and the umbilical cord develop

the first few weeks following fertilization

45

How does gas exchange to the fetus work

gas exchange happens across the placenta, the fetal lungs aren't functional until birth

46

What four extraembryonic membranes turn into the placenta and the placenta

Amnion,
Chorion
Allantois
Yolk Sac

47

What is the amnion and what does it do

it is a thin tough membrane containing amnionic fluid.

48

What does amnionic fluid do

acts as a shock absorber of external pressure and localized pressure from contractions during labor

49

where does placental formation begin

with the chorion

50

What is the chorion

a membrane that surrounds the amnion

51

What is the allantois

a membrane that develops as an outpocket of the gut

52

What come of the allantois

the allantoic wall blood vessels develop and enlarge turning into the umbilical vessels.

53

What is the yolk sac

the site of early development of the blood vessels, is associated with the umbilical vessels

54

What is labor

a series of strong uterine contractions

55

What happens in the first stage of labor

Cervix thins and dialates
the amnionic sac ruptures releasing it's fluids
relatively mild contractions

56

What happens in the second stage of labor

rapid contractions
birth of the baby
cutting of the umbilical cord

57

What happens in the third stage of labor

placenta and umbilical cord are expelled

58

What is the pupal stage of arthropods

when maturation is suspended in a temporary state. (like when a butterfly is in it's cacoon)

59

When is differentiation of cells complete

when all organs of an organism reach adult form

60

What are the parts of a plant embryo

epicotyl
cotyledons
hypocotyl
endosperm
seed coat

61

What is the epicotyl

the precursor of the upper stem and leaves

62

What is the cotyledons

the seed leaves

63

how many seeds leaves do dicots have, and monocots

two for dicots
one for monocots

64

what is the hypocotyl

this develops into the lower stem and root

65

What is the endosperm

the endosperm grows and feeds the embryo

66

what happens to the endosperm in dicots

in dicots the endosperm is absorbed by the cotyledon

67

What is the seed coat

develops to form the outer covering of the ovule.

68

what makes up the seed

the seed coat and the embryo inside

69

What combines to form the fruit of a plant

the ovary walls, the base of the flower, and other consolidated pistil components

70

What is the purpose of the fruit

the fruit serves as a method of seed dispersal (air, water, animals)

71

Where is the seed released from

the seed is released from the ovary, and it will germinate under the proper conditions

72

What is growth in higher plants restricted to

embryonic (undifferentiated) cells called meristem cells

73

What do meristems do in plant development

they eventually undergo reproduction and elongate and differentiate into different cell types

74

What are the two types of meristems

Apical Meristems
Lateral Meristems

75

What are apical meristems

apical meristems are found in the tips of roots and stems, growth only occurs at these points

76

What are Lateral meristems

tissue found between the xylem and phloem. they allow for growth in diameter and can differentiate into new xylem and phloem cells

77

What is another name for lateral meristems

lateral meristems are also called cambium

78

When are lateral meristems of cambium active and non active

non active in monocots (grasses) or herbacious dicots (alfalfa)
Active in woody dicots like oaks

79

What is circulation in plants called

translocation

80

what is the primary organ of transport in the plant

the stem

81

what run up and down the stem

vascular bundles

82

What is found at the center of the stem

the fibrovascular bundle

83

What is in the fibrovascular bundle at the center of the stem

Xylem, phloem and cambium cells

84

What is the Xylem

thick walled, often hollow cells inside the vascular bundle at the center of the stem

85

What does the Xylem do

carry water and minerals up the plant and their thick walls gives the plant rigid support

86

What is the outer layer of the xylem called

the sapwood, and it is alive

87

What are the two types of Xylem cells that have been differentiated

vessel cells and tracheids

88

how does the xylem make water rise up the stem (3 things)

transpiration pull
capillary action
root pressure

89

How does transpiration pull contribute to the vertical movement of water up the xylem

as water evaporates from the leaves of plants a vacuum is created that pulls water up the stem

90

how does capillary action contribute to the vertical movement of water up the xylem

any liquid in a thin tube will rise due to the surface tension of the liquid and interactions between the liquid and the tube

91

how does root pressure contribute to the vertical movement of water up the xylem

water that enters the root exerts pressure that pushes water up the stem

92

What is the Phloem

thin-walled cells on the outside of the vascular bundle

93

What do the cells of the Phloem do

they transport nutrients (carbs) down the stem.

94

What are the two types of phloem cells

sieve tube cells
companion cells

95

Are phloem cells living

yep

96

What is the cambium

undifferentiated cells that are actively dividing that are found between the phloem and the xylem. they are responsible for the lateral growth of plants

97

What can the cambium cells becoe

either phloem cells or xylem cells

98

What are the layers of the stem from outside to inside

epidermis (outer bark)
cortex
phloem
cambium
xylem,
pith

99

What is the pith

tissue involved in storage of nutrients and plant support

100

What are the functions of the roots of plants

absorb materials through root hairs
anchor the plant
(some provide energy storage reserves)

101

What plants roots' provide a storage for energy reserves

carrots and turnips

102

What are root hairs

specialized cells of the root epidermis that increase surface area for absorption of water and minerals from the soil

103

What are the layers of the root

epidermis
cortex
phloem
cambium
xylem
pith

104

What is circulation like in protozoans

movement of gas and nutrients in protozoans is accomplished by simple diffusion within the cell

105

What is circulation like in Cnidarians

have body walls that are two cells thick, all cell are in direct contact with either the internal or external environment so there is not need for a circulatory system

106

What are Cnidarians

hydra

107

What is circulation like in Arthropods

they have open circulatory systems in which blood is in direct contact with body tissues.
The circulation is caused by body movements
Blood flows through a dorsal vessel and into the sinuses where exchange occurs

108

What is a open circulatory system

blood is in direct contact with the body tissues

109

what is a closed circulatory system

blood is confined to vessels to deliver materials to cells that aren't in direct contact with the external environment

110

What is circulation like in Annelids

1. a closed circulatory system
2. blood moves toward the head in the dorsal vessel by the main hearts coordinated contractions
3. there are 5 pairs of vessels called aortic loops that connect the dorsal to the ventral vessel and function as additional pumps
4. blood travels away from the head through the ventral vessel.

111

What are annelids

Earthworms

112

Do annelids (earthworms) have HGB

nope, they have HGB like pigment dissolved in aqueous solution.

113

What does the bicarbonate buffering system do

it can accommodate many pH imbalances that may occur in the body

114

What role does blood play in the buffering system

it acts as a carrier for the crucial gasses and ions used in the system

115

What is the function of the Cardiovascular system

transport of gasses
transport of nutrients
transport of waste

116

Where are Amino acids and simple sugars absorbed into the bloodstream

intestinal capillaries

117

What are the metabolic waste products that are brought into the blood then excreted

urea
water
Co2

118

What are veins

vessels that travel back to the heart

119

What causes the differences in the fetal cardiovascular system as opposed to the adult

the fetal system must bypass the lungs

120

What are the differences between the fetal and adult CDV system

foramen ovale
ductus arteriosus
ductus venosus

121

What is the foramen ovale in the fetual CDV system

a hole between the right and left atrium of the heart that forces blood to bypass the right ventricle

122

What is the ductus arteriosus

a connection between the aorta and the pulmonary artery that prevents any blood in the right ventricle from entering the lungs

123

What is the ductus venosus

moves blood from the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava of the fetus, it bypasses the liver and takes the blood straight to the developing brain

124

What does the lymphatic system consist of

lymphatic vessels
lymph
lymph nodes

125

What does the lymphatic system do

1. transports excess lymph to the CDV system to keep body fluid levels constant
2. lymph nodes filter the lymph removing and destroying foreign particles and pathogens

126

What is lymph

interstitial fluid

127

what is in the lymph nodes

leukocytes

128

how much blood is in the average human body

4-6 liters

129

what percent of blood is liquid, what percent is cellular

55 percent liquid
45 percent cells

130

What is in the blood plasma

nutrients, salts, gases, wastes, hormones, and blood proteins

131

What are some blood proteins

albumin
fibrinogen
immunoglobins

132

What are the cellular components of blood

erthythrocytes
leukocytes
platelets

133

how many HGB molecules can one RBC hold

250 million

134

What is HGB called when it has O bound

oxyhemoglobin

135

What are the advantages of the biconcave disk shape of RBC

increased surface area for gas exchange
flexibility to fit through small capillaires

136

Where are RBC formed

from stem cells in bone marrow (there they lose their nuclei, mitochondria, and other organelles)

137

why do RBC's lose all of their organelles in the bone marrow where they are formed

to make more room for HGB

138

how long do RBC's last

120 days

139

Where are RBC's phagocytized

in the liver and spleen

140

what is larger leukocytes of RBC's

WBC's

141

what is the function of WBC's

1. phagocytize foreign matter and organisms like bacteria

142

What are some different kinds of WBC's

macrophages
lymphocytes
(T and B cells)

143

What are macrophages

WBC's that have moved from the blood into the tissues where they can phagocytize pathogens or innitiate an immune response

144

what do lymphocytes do

they are involved in the immune response
production of antibodies (B cells)
cytolysis or death of infected cells (T cells)

145

What do B cells do

produce antibodies

146

What do T cells do

kill infected cells

147

What are platelets

cell fragments that lack nuclei and are involved in clot formation as a response to tissue injury

148

How does plateleg plug formation happen

1. platelets upon contact with exposed collagen damaged vessel
2. they secrete a chemical
3. chemical causes them to adhere to one another
4. this forms a platelet plug

149

What do both platelets and damaged tissue release

thromboplastin

150

What does thromboplastin do (with the aid of its cofactors Ca and Vit. K)

convert inactive plasma protein prothrombin to its active form Thrombin

151

What does Thrombin do

converts fibrinogen into fibrin

152

What does fibrin do

threads of fibrin coat the damaged area and trap blood cells to form a clot.

153

What is the purpose of a clot

prevention of excessive blood loss while the damaged tissue heals itself

154

What is the fluid left after blood clotting called

serum

155

Where does prothrombin come from

the liver

156

What are antigens

things that are foreign to the body

157

What are the two abilities of the immune system

1. distinguish between self and nonself
2. remember nonself entities that it has encountered

158

What are the two specific defense mechanisms of the immune system

1. Humoral immunity
2. Cell mediated immunity

159

What is humoral immunity

the production of antibodies in response to exposure to antigens

160

What is cell mediated immunity

cells that combat fungal and viral infection

161

What are responsible for both humoral and cell mediated immunity

lymphocytes

162

What is another name for antibodies

immunoglobins (Igs)

163

Where do antibodies come from

B cells

164

What do antibodies do

they recognize and bind to specific antigens and trigger the immune system to remove them

165

What are the two ways that antibodies get rid of antigens

1. attract other cells (leukocytes) to phagocytize them
2. cause the antigens to agglutinate (clump up) to form large, insoluble complexes that can be easily removed by phagocytic cells

166

What is active immunity

the production of antibodies during an immune response to antigens

167

how can active immunity be conferred

by vaccination

168

what is vaccination

injection of a weakened or inactive form of a particular antigen which stimulates creation of antibodies against that antigen

169

how long does active immunity take to build up

weeks

170

What is passive immunity

the transfer of antibodies produced by another individual or organism

171

How is passive immunity acquired

passively
injection

172

what is an example of passive passive immunity

when a mother passes antibodies onto the fetus

173

what is an advantage/disadvantage of passive immunity

it is acquired immediately, but it only lasts as long as the antibodies circulate in the blood
Passive immunity is not very specific either

174

What is gamma globulin

the fraction of blood containing a wide variety of antibodies

175

what can gamma globulin be used for

gamma globulin can be used to confer temporary protection against hepatitis and other diseases by passive immunity

176

how are gamma globulins often applied

by injection

177

What does cell mediated immunity do differently from humoral immunity

instead of antibodies it uses antigen-specific T-lymphocytes to mediate attacks against foreign material

178

What do antigen-specific T-lymphocytes use to attack foreign material

Macrophages
Natural Killer Cells
Cytokines

179

What does Cell-mediated immunity primarily attack

microbes like
viruses
fungi
pathogens

180

What is transplant rejection

the bodies rejection of a donor's organ

181

What causes transplant rejection

Cell-meditaed immunity

182

What can be done to prevent cell-mediated immunity from causing transplant rejection

immunosuppresing drugs can be used to lower the immune system

183

What are some nonspecific defense mechanisms of the body

Skin
passages with mucous coated epithelia
macrophages
inflammatory response
interferons

184

How does skin protect the body

it is a physical barrier against bacterial invasion. And pores on the skin secrete sweat which has enzymes that break down bacterial cell walls

185

how does mucous coated epithelia protect the body

it traps and filters foreign particles

186

how do macrophages protect the body

Macrophages engulf and destroy foreign particles

187

How does the inflammartory response protect the body

1. activated in response to physical injury
2. Injured cells release histamine, increasing blood flow
3. Granulocytes attracted to the site phagocytize antigenic material

188

What does histamine do locally

causes blood vessels to dialate, and increase blood flow to said region

189

What often accompanies the inflammatory response

a fever often accompanies the inflammatory response

190

How do interferons protect the body

Interferons are produced by cells under viral attack, they diffuse to other cells to prevent further spread of the virus

191

What are allergies

allergies are inappopriate immune responses to certain food and pollen. They cause the body to form antibodies and release histamine

192

What determines the type of blood you have

The antigen/s or lack of anitgens on your RBC

193

so if you have A blood type you...

have A antigens and Anti-B antibodies

194

If you have B blood type you have

B antigens and Anti-A antibodies

195

if you have AB blood type you have

both A and B antigens and neither antibody

196

if you have 0 blood you have

neither A or B antigens and both A and B antibodies

197

What happens if you don't have compatible blood with a transfusion

the antibodies will cause the RBC's with the wrong antigen to clump up.

198

what type of blood is the universal acceptor

type AB

199

What type of blood is the universal donor

type O

200

What is the Rh factor

the Rh antigen is another RBC antigen that some people have and some don't

201

So if you have A+, B+ etc..

you have the Rh antigen

202

What is a problem with the Rh factor

an Rh- mother may have an Rh+ child
if the Rh+ factor moves across into the mothers circulation she will build up antibodies against it.
if the mother then has an Rh+ child, the antibodies she has produced will cross the placenta and destroy the fetus' RBC's

203

What is the disorder caused by a mismatch of Rh factor between a mother and child

Erythroblastosis fetalis

204

Can Erythroblastosis fetalis be caused by ABO blood type

nope, because ABO antigens can't cross the placenta.

205

What does the endocrine system do

it functions as a means of internal communication, coordinating the activities of the organ systems

206

What glands secrete hormones directly into the blood stream

endocrine glands

207

How are exocrine gland secretions transported

they are transported by ducts

208

What are the two main types of hormones

Steroid
Peptide

209

What are peptide hormones like structurally

they can be simple short peptides (ADH)
or they can be complex polypeptides (insulin)

210

how do peptide hormones cause changes in the cell

they bind to specific extracellular receptors on the surface of their target cells and trigger a series of enzymatic reactions in the cell

211

What is the typical first reaction caused in the cell by a peptide hormone binding to the outside of the cell

ATP to cAMP by the enzyme adenylate cyclase

212

If peptide hormones are the first messengers, then what is the second messenger

cyclic AMP

213

What is the cascade effect of hormones

with each step of the process (pep hormone -->cAMP---> other reactions) the hormones effects are amplified

214

What inactivates cAMP

phosphodiesterase

215

how long and fast are the effects of peptide hormones

the effects of peptide hormones are fast acting and short lived

216

What are steroid hormones derived from

cholesterol

217

How do steroid hormones affect their target cells

because they are lipid soluble they can enter the cell and bind directly to specific intracellular receptors in the cytoplasm

218

What happens once steroid hormones have bound to their receptor in the cell

the receptor-hormone complex enters the nucleus and directly activates the expression of specific genes by binding to receptors on the chromatin

219

By what do steroids actually bring about a change

they change mRNA transcription and thus protein synthesis

220

What determines the specificity of hormonal action

the presence of specific receptors in or on the target cells

221

What are the adrenal gland

the adrenal medulla
the adrenal cortex

222

What causes the Adrenal cortex to secrete it's hormones

ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone (from ANT. Pit)

223

What kind of hormones does the Adrenal cortex secrete

steroid hormones called corticosteroids

224

What are the corticosteroids

glucocorticoids
mineralocorticoids
cortical sex hormones

225

What are the glucocorticoids

Cortisol and Cortisone

226

What do glucocorticoids do

1. they raise blood glucose levels by promoting the breakdown of proteins and using the products in gluconeogenesis
2. they decrease protein synthesis

227

What is antagonistic to the effects of glucocorticoids

insulin

228

What is a mineralocorticoid

aldosterone

229

what does aldosterone do

1. aldosterone causes active resorption of sodium and passive absorption of water in the nephron

230

What is the functional unit of the kidey

the nephron

231

What does the resorption of sodium and water by aldosterone cause in the body

rise in blood pressure and volume

232

What does excess production of aldosterone cause

hypertensions due to the excessive water retention

233

What are the cortical sex hormones

Androgens

234

What are androgens

male sex hormones

235

Where are the majority of androgens from

testes in the male, some from the adrenal cortes in females

236

what can the overproduction of androgens from the adrenal cortex cause in females

women can have masculinizing effects such as facial hair

237

what kinds of hormones does the adrenal medulla secrete

catecholamines

238

are catecholamines peptide or steroid formones

peptide

239

What are the two catecholamines

epinephrine and norepinephrine

240

What is another name for epinephrine

adrenaline

241

What does epinephrine do

1. increases the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver and muscle causing a rise in blood glucose levels and an increased basal metabolic rate
2. increases heart rate and contractility of the heart
3. cause increased blood supply to the muscles, heart, and brain and decreased blood flow to the kidneys skin and digestive system
4. inhibit vegetative functions like digestion

242

What does norepinephrine do

1. increases heart rate and contractility of the heart
2. cause increased blood supply to the muscles, heart, and brain and decreased blood flow to the kidneys skin and digestive system

243

Are epinephrine and norepinephrine also neurotransmitters

yes

244

How are adrenal hormones controlled

by ACTH from the ant. pit

245

What controls secretion of glucocorticoids and sex steroids

ACTH

246

what controls secretion of aldosterone

the renin-angiotensin mechanism

247

What is another name for the pituitary

hypophysis

248

what are the lobes of the pituitary

anterior
posterior
intermediate (rudimentary in humans)

249

What are the two types of hormones secreted by the Ant. Pit

direct and indirect hormones

250

What are the direct hormones of the Anterior pituitary

Growth hormone (GH)
Prolactin
Endorphins

251

What are the indirect (Tropic) hormones of the Anterior pituitary

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Tyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
lutenizing hormone (LH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

252

What is another name for GH

somatotropin

253

What does GH do

promotes bone and muscle growth

254

what does a deficiency of GH in children cause

stunted growth (dwarfism)

255

What does overproduction of GH in children cause

gigantism

256

What does overproduction of GH in adults cause

acromegaly

257

What is acromegaly

acromegaly is a disorder characterized by overgrowth of bone, usually in the skull, jaw, feet, and hands

258

What does prolactin do

prolactin stimulates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands

259

what do endorphins do

endorphins are neurotransmitters the behave like opioids relieving pain and producing pleasurable sensations

260

What does ACTH do

stimulates the adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids and sex steroids

261

What regulates ACTH release

corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)

262

What does TSH do

TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to synthesize and release thyroid hormones

263

What does LH do in females

in females it stimulates ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum
in males in stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to synthesize testosterone.

264

What does the corpus luteum do

secretes progesterone and estrogen

265

what does LH do in males

in males in stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to synthesize testosterone.

266

What does FSH do in females

causes maturation of the ovarian follicles

267

What do the ovarian follicles do

secrete estrogen

268

what does FSH do in males

stimulates maturation of the seminiferous tubules and sperm production

269

What is another name for the posterior pituitary

the neurohypophysis

270

What does the posterior pituitary do

it stores, does not synthesize the peptide hormones Oxytocin and ADH

271

what kind of hormones are ADH and Oxytocin

peptide hormones

272

Where are oxytocin and ADH produced

the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus

273

When is oxytocin released

during childbirth

274

what does Oxytocin do

increases the strength and frequency of uterine muscle contractions

275

Is oxytocin ran by a positive or a negative feedback system

positive
oxytocin stimulates contraction
contaction stiumlates oxytocin release

276

What besides contractions causes oxytocin release

sucking by a baby

277

What does ADH do

it increases the permeability of the collecting duct in the nephron to water.
this promotes water reabsorption
decreasing blood osmolarity by increasing blood volume

278

When is ADH secreted

1. when plasma osmolarity increases and is sensed by the hypothalamus osmoreceptors.
2. when blood volume decreases and is sensed by the baroreceptors in the circulatory system

279

What does the hypothalamus do

it receives neural transmissions from other parts of the brain and peripheral nerves, which trigger specific responses from the neurosecretory cells

280

what do the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus do , and how

1. regulate pituitary gland secretions

1. negative feedback systems
2. through the actions of inhibiting and releasing hormones

281

how does the hypothalamus influence the anterior pituaitary

it's hormones stimulate or inhibit the release of the anterior pituitary hormones

282

What does GnRH

stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete LH and FSH

283

how do hypothalamal hormones get to the ant pit

through the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system (capillaries that run straight from one to the other)

284

What does ACTH-RF do

causes the anterior pituitary to release ACTH

285

How does the hypothalamus interact with the posterior pituitary

the neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus synthesize and transport oxytocin and ADH to the posterior pit for storage

286

What is the thyroid like

it's a bi lobed structure located on the ventral side of the trachea.

287

what does the thyroid secrete

thyroxine (T4)
triiodothyronine (T3)
calcitonin

288

What are the thyroid hormones

thyroxine and triiodothyronine

289

From where do the tyroid hormones come

iodination of the AA tyrosine

290

What do the thyroid hormones do

aid in growth and neurological development in children
increase the rate of metabolism

291

What is hypothyroidism

when the thyroid isn't secreting enough thyroxine and triiodothyronine

292

What does hypothyroidism lead to

slowed heart and respiratory rate
fatigue
cold intolerance
weight gain

293

What is cretinism

hypothyroidism in newborn infants

294

What are the symptoms of cretinism

mental retardation and short stature

295

What is hyperthyroidism

oversecretion of the thyroid hormones

296

What does hyperthyroidism lead to

increased metabolic rate
feelings of excessive warmth
profuse sweating
palpitations
weight loss
protruding eyes

297

What can happen in both hyper and hypothyroidism

the thyroid may often enlarge, forming a goiter

298

What does calcitonin do

decreases plasma CA2+ levels by inhibiting its release from the bone.

299

What regulates calcitonin secretion

plasma calcium levels

300

What has antagonistic actions to calcitonin

the parathyroid hormone

301

What kind of gland is the pancreas

it's both an exocrine and endocrine organ

302

what does the pancreas secrete exocrinically

the cells that secrete digestive enzymes into the small intestine via a series of ducts

303

how does the pancreas act endocrinically

the islets of langerhans, which are composed of alpha and beta cells.

304

What do the beta cells of the pancreas produce and secrete

insulin

305

what do the alpha cells of the pancreas produce and secrete

glucagon

306

what does glucagon do

stimulates protein and fat degradation
conversion of glycogen to glucose
stimulate gluconeogenesis

307

What is the result of the actions of glucagon

increase in blood sugar

308

What causes glucagon to be released

low blood sugar levels

309

What does insulin do

stimulates the uptake of glucose into the muscle and adipose cells
stimulates the storage of glucose as glycogen in the muscle and liver
stimulates the synthesis of fats from glucose
stimulate the uptake of amino acids

310

What is the result of the actions of insulin

decrease blood sugar levels

311

What hormones cause the increase of blood sugar

glucagon
glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone)
GH
epinephrine

312

What is the underproduction or insensitivity of insulin lead to

diabetes mellitus (characterized by high blood glucose)

313

What are the parathyroid glands like

they are four small, pea shaped structures on the back of the thyroid gland

314

What do parathyroid glands do

the synthesize and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)

315

what does parathyroid hormone do

increases plasma Calcium concentration by increasing bone resorption and decreasing calcium excretion in the kidneys

316

What is a side effect of parathyroid hormone action

phosphate is bound to calcium in the bone so phosphate is also increased with calcium levels.

317

how does the parathyroid compensate for the increase in phosphate it causes

it causes the kidneys to increase phosphate excretion

318

How do the kidneys act hormonally

they produce renin

319

What causes the kidneys to produce renin

when blood volume falls

320

what does renin do

in converts plasma protein angtiontensinogen to angiotensin 1

321

What happens to angiotensin 1

it is converted into angiotensin 2

322

what does angiotensin 2 do

stimulates the release of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex

323

what does aldosterone do

aldosterone causes active resorption of sodium and passive absorption of water in the nephron.

324

what removes the stimulus for renin

increase in blood volume

325

What are some gastrointestinal hormones

gastrin
secretin
cholecystokinin (CCK)
Bile

326

What does gastrin do

stimulates the secretion of HCL

327

What causes gastrin release

ingested food in the stomach

328

What does secretin do

it simulates the secretion of alkaline bicarbonate from the pancreas to neutralize the acidity of the chyme

329

where is secretin secreted from

the small intestine

330

what is chyme

partially digested food from the stomach

331

What does cholecystokinin (CCK) do

CCK causes the contraction of the gall bladder and release of bile into the small intestine
it also travels to the brain causing the "full" sensation

332

Where is cholecystokinin released from

the small intestine

333

what causes CCK to be released

the presence of fats

334

What does Bile do

it helps in the digestion of fats

335

What is the pineal gland, and what does it secrete

a tiny structure at the base of the brain that secretes melatonin

336

What does melatonin do

plays a role in circadian rhythms (physiological cycles lasting 24 hours)

337

What regulates melatonin secreteion

light and dark cycles in the environment

338

what did melatonin do in primitive vertabrates

lightens the skin by concentrating pigment granules in melanophores

339

Where are plant hormones produced

actively growing parts of the plants like meristematic tissues (apical of shoots and roots)

340

What are the kinds of plant hormones

Auxins
Gibberelins
Kinins
Ethylene
Inhibitors
Anti-Auxins

341

What are the three things auxins do

phototropism
geotropism
inhibition of lateral buds

342

What is phototropism

The tendancy of the shoots of plants to bend towards the light source

343

How does phototropism occur

the auxins on the sunny side of the plant are reduced by the sunlight, this causes it to grow more slowely than the unshaded side

344

What is indoleacetic acid

one of the auxins associated with phototropism

345

What is geotropism

the tendency of portions of plants to grow towards or away from gravity

346

What is negative geotropism

causes shoots of plants grow upwards away from gravity

347

what is positive geotropism

causes roots of plants grow towards the pull of gravity

348

How does negative geotropism work

in a horizontal shoot the auxins will be more concentrated on the lower side of the shoot and will cause it to grow more quickly, turning the plant up

349

How does positive geotropism work

in horizontal roots the auxins will be more concentrated on the lower side of the root, which will cause it to grow more slowely, causing the root to grow down ward

350

What do auxins produced in the terminal bud of a plants growing tip do

they inhibit the development of lateral buds

351

what do auxins do in the roots

initiate the formation of lateral roots, while inhibiting root elongation

352

What do auxins do for the production of xylem

they stimulate it growing from the cambium

353

What do gibberelins do for the production of phloem

they stimulate it growing from the cambium

354

What do gibberelins do

they stimulate rapid stem elongation (in normally short plants)
terminate the dormancy of seeds and buds

355

What do kinins do (plants)

they promote cell division

356

What does auxin levels do to the function of kinins

the higher the auxins the higher the level of function in the kinins

357

What does Ethylene do (plants)

simulates fruit ripening and aging

358

what is the fancy word for plant again

senescence

359

What do inhibitors do (plants)

they block cell division
maintain dormancy in lateral buds and seeds of plants

360

what happens to inhibitors during the cold season

they break down with time and the cold, causing seeds to be active during the next season

361

What is Abscisic acid

one of the most important plant inhibitors

362

What are Anit-auxins

hormones that regulate the activities of auxins

363

What is indoleacetic osidase

an anti auxin that regulates the concentration of indoleacetic acid

364

What is the functional unit of the nervous system

the neuron

365

What is the nervous system like for unicellar organisms

they don't have an organized one,
they respond to touch, heat, light, and chemicals

366

What is the nervous system like in Cnidaria

they have a simple nervous system called a nerve net with limited centralization

367

What is the nervous system of the annelida like

they have a primitive CNS, with a defined dorsal nerve and an anterior "Brain"

368

what makes up the brain of the annelida

fused ganglia (clusters of nerve cell bodies)

369

What is the nervous system like for arthropoda

brains similar to annelids, but they have more specialized sense organs (compound or simple eyes and tympanum)

370

What produces myelin in the CNS

oligodendrocytes

371

What produces myelin in the PNS

Schwann cells

372

What is the resting potential

the potential difference between the extracellular space and the intracellular space

373

What is a typical resting membrane potential

-70 mV (the inside is more negative than the outside)

374

What maintains the negative resting potential

the sodium potassium pump pumping 3Na out while pumping 2 K in

375

What is the threshold potential

-50 mV, when the voltage gated Na open causing an action potential

376

What happens when the membrane has been depolarized by voltage gated Na channels

the voltage gated K channels open to repolarize the membrane

377

What determines the speed of propogation of an action potentila

the diameter of the axon and the myelination

378

What are effector cells

cells that are post-synaptic

379

What are the three ways that neurotransmitters can leave the synapse

1. degraded by enzymes
2. diffusion
3. taken back up by uptake carriers

380

What does curare do to the synapse

curare blocks the postsynaptic ACH receptors so that ACH can't interact with receptors

381

What does botulism toxin do to the synapse

botulism toxin prevents the release of ACH from the presynaptic membrane, resulting in paralysis

382

What does Anticholinesterases do to synapses

They block ACHesterases from degrading AC so that it constantly binds to the post-synaptic receptors.

383

Where are anticholinesterases used

nerve gases and in the insecticide parathion

384

What do Anticholinesterases cause

no coordination muscular contractions

385

What makes up nerves

bundles of axons

386

What kinds of neurons are sensory neurons

afferent

387

what kinds of neurons are motor neurons

efferent

388

What are neuron cell body clustes called PNS and CNS

PNS = ganglia
CNS = nuclei

389

What makes up the outer portion of the brain

gray matter (cell bodies)

390

What makes up the inner portion of the brain

white matter (axons)

391

What are the three parts of the brain

forebrain midbrain hindbrain

392

What are the parts of the forebrain

telencephalon
diencephalon

393

What are the parts of the telencephalon outside and inside

outside is the cerebral cortex
inside is the olfactory bulb

394

What are the parts of the diencephalon

The thalamus and the hypothalamus

395

What is the thalamus

the relay and integration center for the spinal cord and cerebral cortex

396

What does the hypothalamus do

controls visceral functions(hunger, thirst, sex drive, water balance, blood pressure, temperature regulation

397

What is another name for the midbrain

the mesencephalon

398

What does the midbrain do

it is a relay center for visual and auditory impulses

399

What are the parts of the hindbrain

cerebellum, pons, and medulla

400

What does the cerebellum do

helps with balance, hand-eye coordination, rapid movement timing

401

What does the pons do

acts as a relay center between the cortex and the cerebellum

402

What does the medulla do

controls vital functions
heart rate, breathing, GI activity

403

what do the midbrain, medulla, and pons make up

the brainstem

404

What are the layers of the spinal cord

White outer (axons)
gray inner (cell bodies)

405

What is the path of sensory information flow in the spinal cord

1. flows in through the dorsal horn
2. exits through the ventral horn

406

Where are the cell bodies for the sensory neurons located

dorsal root ganglion

407

What are the two parts of the PNS

somatic and autonomic nervous system

408

What is the primary sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter

norepinephrine

409

what is the primary parasympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter

ACH

410

What is the thick opaque (white)layer of the eye

sclera

411

What is the choroid of the eye

Lies beneath the sclera
supplies blood to the retina
dark and pigmented to reduce reflection in the eye

412

What is the innermost layer of the eye

the retina

413

what does the retina have

photoreceptors

414

What is the transparent front of the eye called

cornea

415

What does the cornea do

it bends and focuses light through the pupil

416

what causes the Iris to constrict

light

417

Where is the lens of the eye located

behind the pupil

418

what controls the focal length of the lens of the eye

the ciliary muscles

419

What are cones of the eye

photoreceptors that respond to high-intensity illumination and are sensitive to color

420

what are the rods of the eye

photoreceptors that respond to low-intensity illumination and are important for night vision

421

How many pigments do the cones have and what do they do

3
they absorb blue, green, and red wavelengths

422

How many pigments do the rods have and what do they do

1
absorbs a single wavelength

423

What is the rod pigment called

rhodopsin

424

If the photoreceptors in the eye are the presynaptic neurons, what are the post-synaptic neurons

Bipolar cells

425

What is the order of propogation of energy harvested by the photoreceptors in the eye

photoreceptors are depolarized
they pass the action potential to the bipolar cells
they pass the action potential to the ganglion cells
The axons of the ganglion cells form the optic nerves

426

What is the point in the retina where the optic nerves leaves

the blind spot

427

What is the area of the retina where there is a high density of cones

the fovea

428

What is the vitreous humor

a jellylike material that fills the eye and helps it maintain its shape and optical properties
fills the posterior chamber of the eye

429

What is aqueous humor

fills the anterior chamber of the eye
made by the eye and exits through ducts to join venous blood

430

What is myopia

nearsightedness, when the image is focused in front of the retina

431

what is hyperopia

farsightedness, when the image is focusd behind the retina

432

What is astigmatism

when the cornea is irregularly shaped

433

what are cataracts

when the lens becomes opaque and light can't enter the eye = blindness

434

What is glaucoma

when the outflow of aqueous humor is blocked the pressure in the eye increases which can damage the optic nerve

435

What are the parts of the outer ear

the auricle
and the auditory canal

436

What are the parts of the middle ear

the tympanic membrane
the mallus, incus, and stapes

437

what are the parts of the inner ear

the cochlea
vestibular aparatus

438

What does the tympanic membrane do

vibrates at the same frequency as the incoming sound

439

What do the mallus, incus and stapes do

amplify the stimulus and transmit it through the oval window of the cochlea

440

what does the vestibular apparatus do

helps maintain equilibrium and balance

441

What happens once the vibration of the ossicles enters the oval window

the fluid of the cochlea moves, this stimulates the hair cells that transduce the pressure into action potentials

442

where are the hair cells of the inner ear found

in the cochlea on the basilar membrane

443

What is external respiration

entrance of air into the lungs and the exchange of gasses between the alveoli and the blood

444

What is internal respiration

the exchange of gas between the blood and the cells and the intracellular processes of respiration

445

What X-X bond is capable of releasing the most energy per mole when it is broken

C-H

446

What is the reaction type and name when an H is removed from organic molecules

dehydrogenaion and it is an oxidation reaction

447

at what step of glycolysis in the former glucose split in two

step 4 (fructose 1,6-diphosphate)

448

What are the products/substrates in order of glycolysis

Glucose
glucose-6-phosphate
fructose-6-phosphate
fructose-1,6-diphosphate
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (Dihydroxyacetone phosphate)
1,3-diphosphoglycerate
3 phosphoglycerate
2 phosphoglycerate
phosphoenolpyruvate
pyruvate

449

What are the substrates and products of glycolysis

glucose, 2 ATP

2 Pyruvate, 4ATP, 2 NADH

450

What is substrate level phosphorylation

when in the synthesis of ATP there is no NADH/FADH2 used, it skips that step

451

what happens to pyruvate in aerobic situations

it goes onto the CAC

452

what happens to pyruvate in anaerobic situations

it is reduced to ethanol or lactic acid by fermentation

453

What is fermentaion

the anaerobic process of glycolysis and the steps to creating ethanol or lactic acid to regenerate NAD+

454

how many ATP does fermentation produce

2 ATP per molecule

455

When is ethanol produced in fermentaion

in yeast and some bacteria

456

When is lactic acid produced in fermentations

in certain fungi, bacteria, and human muscle during strenuous exercise

457

What are the three stages of cellular respiration

1. pyruvate decarboxylation
2. Citric acid cycle
3. ETC

458

what happens at pyruvate decarboxylation

pyruvate is converted to Acetyl-CoA
NADH is made

459

What happens in the CAC

1. pyruvate and oxaloacetate join
2. 2 CO2's, 1 ATP, 1 FADH, 3 NADH formed
(4 CO2's, 2ATP, 2FADH, 6 NADH per glucose)

460

Where is the ETC located

the inner mitochondrial membrane

461

What are most of the molecules in the ETC

cytochromes

462

How many ATP's are produced per molecule of glucose by substrate level-phophorylation

4 (2 from glycolysis, 2 from CAC)

463

How many ATP's are produced per molecule of glucose by oxidative phophorylation

32
28 from 10 NADH
4 from 2 FADH

464

How many total ATP's are prduced from one glucose

36 total

465

Brock style how many ATP's are produce from one glucose

25 from 10 NADH
3 from 2 FADH
4 ATP
32 total

466

What is the order of preferred energy source of the body

glucose, other carbs, fats, proteins

467

How are other carbs used for energy

most of them are broken down to monosaccharides which can then be converted into glucose

468

How are fats used for energy

Triglycerides are hydrolyzed by lipases to fatty acids and glycerols.

469

How is glycerol used in the production of energy

it is converted into PGAL, which is an intermediate in glycolysis

470

How are fatty acids used in the production of energy

1. they must be activated using 2 ATP's so it can be taken to the mitochondria
2. beta oxidation chops it up into 2 C molecules that are turned into Acetyl-CoA
3. The Acetyl-CoA enters the TCA cycle

471

what is produced in beta oxidation of a saturated fatty acid

1 NADH 1 FADH

472

When is protein used for energy,

when no other carbs or fats are available

473

What are the two reactions that activate proteins for energy harvesting

transamination
oxidative deamination

474

what does oxidative deamination create

Ammonia

475

What does photosynthesis do

converts water and CO2 into Glucose and oxygen

476

what is plant storage of glucose

starch

477

what is the photosynthetic organelles

chloroplasts

478

how do photosynthetic bacteria work without chloroplasts

they have membranes that function in a similar manner

479

What are the two reactions of photosynthesis

light reaction and dark reactions

480

what do light reactions do

convert solar energy into ATP and NADPH

481

What do dark reactions do

they incorporate CO2 into organic molecules (carbon fixation)

482

what is another name for the carbon fixation reactions and why

reduction synthesis because carbohydrates are produced by reducing CO2

483

Where do the light and dark reactions occur

the choloplasts

484

where actually absorbs the photons of light

chlorophyll in the thylakoid membranes

485

what is another name for the light reactions of photosynthesis

photolysis

486

what happens when light strikes the chlorophyll molecule

a P700 molecule is struck and excites electrons to a higher energy level. those electrons can flow in two ways

487

what are the two ways that the excited electrons can flow in photosynthesis

the cyclic electron flow and the non-cyclic electron flow

488

what happens in the cyclic electron flow

excited electrons of P700 move along a chain of electron carriers where a series of redox reactions occur which produces ATP, and returns the electrons to P700

489

what is cyclic photophosphorylation

when ATP is made from the cyclic electron flow

490

What happens in non-cyclic electron flow

1. the electrons from P700 are transfered to NADP+ to make NADPH
2. Excited electrons from P680 move to P700 filling P700's holes and creating ATP
3. P680 oxidizes H2O, fills its holes, and two O's combine to make O2

491

What are the products of the non-cyclic electron flow

NADPH
ATP
O2

492

What do the dark reactions do

use NADPH And ATP from the light reactions to reduce CO2 and make carbs

493

What is the calvin cycle

the process in plants that converts Co2 into PGAL

494

What happens with the PGAL from the calvin cycle

1. it is used
2. exported as glucose,
3. stored

495

how many times must the calvin cycle go to produce a 3C PGAL from Co2

3 times

496

In what 3 ways is the calvin cycle just like the krebs cycle in reverse

1. CO2 is fed into the cycle in calvin, in krebs it is released
2. FADPH was used in the calvin, NADH was made in krebs
3. ATP was used in calvin, ATP is produced in Krebs

497

What is the product of the calvin cycle

PGAL

498

what are the steps of the calvin cycle

1. CO2 binds to RBP (ribulose biphosphate 5C)
2. RBP breaks down to form two 3C PGA's
3. PGA is phosphorylated and reduced (by ATP and NADPH) to PGAL
4. most PGAL goes back through the cycle
5. 1 PGAL is ready

499

how many runs through the calvin cycle until you can get a glucose

6,
in six turns of the calvin cycle you get
- 12 PGAL from 6 CO2 and 6 RBP

The 12 PGAL recombine to form 6 RBP and 1 glucose

500

How does respiration work in protozoa and hydra

since every cell is exposed to the environment gasses simply diffuse through the cell membrane

501

How does respiration work in annelids

mucus secreted on the external surface of the earthworm provides a moist surface for gas diffusion through the skin. then the circulatory system brings the O2 to the cells, and the CO2 to the surface to be released.
Aquatic annelids use gills or parapodia for gas exchange

502

how does respiration work in the arthropod phylum (grasshopper)

there are surface openings called spiracles, there are tubes that run from the spiracles to the body cells called trachae. gasses go into the spiracles and down the trachae and can diffuse across into cells directly.

503

What is the purpose of ventilation

to bring O2 into the blood and get rid of CO2

504

Where is the respiratory control centers

medulla oblongata

505

What causes the respiratory control centers to increase firing

increase in the partial pressure of CO2

506

What is the purpose of pulmonary surfactant

it coats the walls of the alveoli and reduces surface tension
this allows for easier gas exhange, and better compliance

507

what is lung compliance

elasticity

508

when does plant respiration occur

day and night

509

what does plant respiration do

uses oxygen to degrade glucose

510

how many ATP per glucose is made in plants

36

511

where do gasses in plants leave from

the stoma of the leaf or the lenticels (openings) of woody stems