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Flashcards in Biology 3 Deck (422):
1

How do unicellular protozoans and primitive algae move

by beating cilia or flagella

2

what is the strucutre of cilia of flagella

a cylindrical stalk of 11 microtubules
9 paired microtubules arranged in a circle
2 single microtubules in the center

3

how are muscles of flatworms (planaria) arranged

in two antagonistic layers

4

what are the two layers of muscles in flatworms

longitudinal and circular

5

What is the hydrostatic skeleton of flatworms and annelids

an incompressible fluid that gives the flatworm and annelids it's shape

6

how do flatworms move

1. when they contract their circular muscles the incompressible fluid moves longitudinally lengthening the worm
2. the longitudinal muscles contract causing the worm to shorten

7

How do annelids move

then can compress of expand each section independently, and they have setae which anchor them to the ground

8

what are setae

bristles on the underside of annelids that allow them to anchor to the ground while their muscles push against it

9

What is an exoskeleton

a hard skeleton that covers all muscles and organs

10

what is an arthropod

insect

11

what are insect exoskeletons composed of

chitin

12

what are all exoskeletons composed of

noncellular material secreted by the epidermis

13

What is a problem with exoskeletons

they restrict growth, so periodic molting and deposition of new skeletons are necessary

14

What is an endoskeleton

The normal interior skeleton

15

what are trabeculae

the interconnecting lattice of bony spicules in spongy bone

16

What is endochondral ossification

when cartilage is replaced by bone (long bone)

17

what is intramembranous ossification

when mesenchymal (undifferentiated embryonic) connective tissue is turned into bone

18

what is the latent period of a muscle twitch

the time between stimulation and the onset of contraction

19

what is another name for the relaxation period of a muscle twitch

absolute refractory period (when it is unresponsive to stimulation)

20

What is tonus of muscle

the constant partial contraction of muscle, they are never fully relaxed

21

What is an analog of creatine phosphate in some organism

arginine phosphate

22

what is digestion

the breakdown of large food molecules into small ones that can be absorbed into the blood stream

23

how is food captured in unicellular organisms

by phagocytosis

24

how is phagocytosis done to food in unicellular enzymes

1. the cell surrounds the food and pulls it into a vacuole
2. Lysosomes fuse with the vacuole and release enzymes to break down the food
3. small molecules diffuse into the cytoplasm
4. large molecules are eliminated from the vacuole

25

How is digestion done in paramecium

1. cilia sweep food into the oral groove and down into the cytopharanx
2. a vacuole forms around the food at the end of the cytopharanx
3. vavuoles move to the anterior portion where enzymes break down the food
4, small molecules diffuse into the cytoplasm
5. large molecules are expelled through the anal pore

26

What does the physical breakdown of food do

it breaks down food into smaller particles increasing surface area
it doesn't affect the molecular composition

27

how is physical breakdown done

cutting and mashing food in the mouth and churning of the digestive tract

28

chemical breakdown does what

breaks food down into smaller absorbable things

29

How is digestion done in cnidarians

1. tentacles bring food to the mouth
2. particles go from the mouth to a sac
3, the endodermal cells lining this cavity secrete enzymes to break down food.
4. small fragments are engulfed by gastrodermal cells and digestion is completed intracellulary
5. un absorbed food is expelled through the mouth

30

How is digestion done in annelids

1. it is eaten at the mouth
2. passes through the pharynx and esophagus
3. enters the crop (food storage)
4. from the crop to the gizzard (food grinder)
5. into the large intestine
6. excreted by the anus

31

what is unique about the large intestine of the annelid

it has a large dorsal fold to increase surface area

32

what is the large dorsal fold of annelid digestive system called

the thypholosole

33

What is the arthropod digestive system like

they are just like annelids except they have jaws for chewing and glands to help with digestion

34

where is nutrient absorption done in a annelids and arthropods

the large intestine

35

What is the order of food passing in humans

1. oral cavity
2. pharynx
3. esophagus
4. stomach
5. small int.
6. large int.
7. anus

36

What are the acessory organs to the digestive system

salivary glands
pancreas
liver
gall bladder

37

What happens in the oral cavity

mechanical breakdown by mastication
chemical breakdown by saliva

38

what are the functions of saliva

1. lubricate the food for easier swallowing
2. breakdown starch to maltose

39

what is the enzyme released by saliva in the mouth

salivary amylase (ptyalin)

40

What are the rhythmic waves of involuntary smooth muscle contraction of the esophagus called

peristalsis

41

Where are the stomach glands found

in the gastric mucosa

42

what is the pH of the stomach

2

43

what does pepsin do

it hydrolizes proteins

44

what does HCL do in the stomach

1. kills bacteria
2. dissolves the intercellular "glue" holding food tissues together
3. activates certain enzymes (pepsin)

45

What is chyme

an acidic semifluid mixture of partially digested food

46

what is the first section of the small int.

duodenum

47

What are the two sphincters of the stomach

gastric and pyloric

48

What are the three sections of the small int

duodenum, jejunum and the ileum

49

what is found in vili of the small int

capillaries and lacteals

50

what are lacteals

small vessels of the lymphatic system

51

What goes into capillaries and into lacteals in the small int

amino acids and monosaccharides go into the capillaries
large fatty acids and glycerol go into the lacteals

52

what happens to fatty acids and glycerol in the lacteals

they are reconverted into fats

53

what two things must be actively absorbed

glucose and amino acids

54

Where does most digestion occur

the duodenum

55

what are lipases for

fat digestion

56

what are aminopeptidases for

polypeptide digestion

57

what are disaccharidases for

digestion of disaccharides

58

What does the liver do for digestion

produces bile

59

what stores bile

gall bladder

60

what does bile do

emulsifies fat (breaks it down into small globs) which increases surface area for lipase

61

what does the pancreas do for digestion

secretes amylase, trypsin, and lipase
secretes a bicarbonate juice to neutralize acidity

62

what does the large intestine do for digestions

it absorbs salt and water

63

what does the rectum do

stores feces prior to elimination through the anus

64

do plants have a digestive system

nope

65

how do things like fungi get food

they secrete enzymes into whatever they are growing on, then the smaller molecules are absorbed and used for energy or syntehsized to larger molecules

66

What is rhizoids

they are a thing in bread mold
saprophyte

67

What does the venus flytrap use the insect it eats as

a nitrate source because they grow in nitrogen poor soils

68

what is excretion

the removal of metabolic wastes produced by the body

69

what is elimination

the removal of indigestible material

70

where does excretion occur

the kidneys

71

how do protozoans and cnidarians excrete

the metabolic byproducts simply diffuse out of the cell since they are all external

72

What do freshwater protozoans and cnidarians have for excretion

contractile vacuoles needed for active transport to pump against osmotic pressure

73

how does CO2 excretion occur in annelids

it diffuses directly through the skin

74

how do annelids excrete water, mineral salts, and nitrogenous wastes

in the form of urea by nephridia

75

how many nephridia do annelids have per body segement

2

76

How is carbon dioxide excreted by arthropods

it diffuses from the cells to the tracheae, then through those out the spiracles

77

How are nitrogenous wastes excreted by arthropods

in the form of solid uric acid crystals with the solid wastes of digestion

78

why do insects excrete nitrogenous wastes in the form of solid uric crystals

to conserve water.

79

where do the salts and uric acid accumulate for excretion in arthropods

malphigian tubules

80

what are the principal organs of excretion of the human body

lungs
liver
skin
kidneys

81

what do the lungs excrete

CO2 and water vapor

82

what does the skin excrete

water and salts

83

what does the liver do for excretion

processes nitrogenous waste, blood pigment waste, and other chemicals
Produces Urea

84

What do the kidneys do

they regulate the concentration of salt and water in the blood by formation and excretion of urine

85

what makes up the kidneys

nephrons

86

What are the three regions of the kidney

outer cortex, inner medulla, and the renal pelvis

87

What is the path that blood takes in the kidney

afferent arteriole
bowmans capsule
glomerulus
proximal convoluted tubule
loop of henle
distal convuloted tubule
collecting duct
renal pelvis
ureter
urinary bladder
urethra

88

Where are the structures of the nephron located

bowmans capsule, glomerulus, both convuloted tubules are in the cortex.
loop of henle is in the medulla

89

what surrounds the nephron

the peritubular capillary

90

what is the purpose of the periubular capillary

facilitate reasbsorption of amino acids, glucose, salts and water

91

What are the three processes of urine formation

filtration
secretion
reabsorption

92

What is filtration

the process of blood plasma flowing through the glomerulus, and bowmans capsule, then into the nephron

93

What percent of blood plasma is pushed through the glomerulus and by what

blood pressure pushes 20% of blood plasma through into the nephron

94

What is the fluid called that enters the nephron through the glomerulus

filtrate

95

What stays in the blood when it is filtrated

large particles like blood cells and albumin

96

What is secretion in the kidney

when the nephron pulls potentially harmful stuff into the filtrate from the peritubular capillaries for excretion

97

What kinds of transport do secretion

both active and passive

98

What is reabsorption

when essential substances are pulled back into the peritubular capillaries from the filtrate

99

What things are reabsorbed

glucose, salts, amino acids, water

100

Is reabsorption active or passive transport

active

101

where does reabsorption primarily occur

the proximal convuloted tubule

102

what does reabsorption do for the concentration of urine

when it pulls substances back into the capillaries it also pulls water, this means that urine will be more concentrated, or hypertonic to the blood

103

how does tissue osmolarity of the kidney change

it increases from the cortex to the medulla

104

What are the solutes that contribute to the maintenance of the kidney gradient

urea and salt

105

what establishes the osmolarity of urine

the countercurrent multiplier system

106

What concentrates urine

the hyperosmolarity of the medulla pulls water out of the collecting tubules on it's way to the renal pelvis

107

What hormone regulates the permeability of the collecting tubule

ADH or vasopressin (increases permiability)

108

How does excess water leave plants

transpiration through leaf stomates

109

what do plants do with their metabolic wastes

they reuse many of them

110

What are reflexes

automatic responses to simple stimuli that are reliable behavioral responses to a given stimuli

111

what is a simple reflex

sensory neuron sends a signal to the spinal cord, there it connects to an interneuron and then to the motor neuron

112

What is different about a complex reflex as opposed to a simple reflex

they involve neural integration at a higher level
(brainstem or cerebrum)

113

what is an example of a complex reflex

startle response

114

what does the reticular activating system do

in charge of sleep/wake cycles
behavoiral motivation
complex reflexs

115

what are fixed action patterns

complex, coordinated, innate behavioral responses to stimulation in the environment

116

What is the stimulus that starts fixed action patterns called

the releaser

117

are fixed action patterns ususally modified through learning

nope

118

what are examples of fixed-action patterns

swimming actions of a fish

119

What are behavior cycles also called

circadian rythyms

120

what happens to behavoir cycles if you are taken away from the light/dark environment

they lose some precision

121

What is internal and external control of behavior cycles

internal = body rhythms of hunger/satiation
external = dinner bells, clocks

122

What are environmental rhythms

things like stop lights, environmental factors that creates repeated behavoir

123

What determines how much learning a species can do

the degree of neurological development

124

What is habituation

a form of learning in which repeated stimulation results in decreased responsiveness to that stimulation

125

What is it called when after habituation with a stimulus, the stimulus is stopped and the reaction occurs again

spontaneous recovery

126

What is classical conditioning

Pavlovs dogs, you make an unassociated stimulus replace a biological stimulus by associated the two stimuli

127

what is the innate stimul called

unconditioned stimulus

128

what is the innate reflex to the innate simuli called

unconditioned response

129

What is the unassociated response called

neutral stimulus

130

What is pseudo conditioning

when you accidentally pick a neutral stimulus that does the same thing as the real stimulus

131

What is operant or instrumental conditioning

when you conditioning with a reward or reinforcement

132

What did skinners box show

operant conditioning

133

what is positive reinforcement

when you reward the animal for doing something you wanted

134

how effective is positive reinforcement

very effective, it can be involved in normal habit forming

135

What is negative reinforcement

? either removal of an unwanted stimulus
or rewarding something for not doing something

136

is negative reinforcement effective

pretty effective, not as effective as positive

137

how good is punishment at conditioning

pretty good, not as good as positive reinforcement

138

What is habit family hierarchy

when one stimulus has a few different responses
reward for one response increases it's occurence
punishment for one response decreases it's occurence

139

what is extinction in conditioning

when a conditioned response is lost in the absence of reinforcement

140

how does extinction happen in instrumental or operant conditioning

the conditioned response will gradually decrease as the stimulus is stopped and will eventually go away. but it will come back quickly when the stimuli is brought back

141

how does extinction happen in classical conditioning

the conditioned response will gradually decrease if you don't pair up the conditioned stimuli and the unconditioned stimulus occasionally. it can be relearned after extinction

142

what is it called when a conditioned response comes back after extinction

spontaneous recovery

143

What is stimulus generalization

the ability of a conditioned organism to respond to a stimulus that is different but similar to the conditioned stimulus.

144

What happens to varying stimuli in stimulus generalization

the further from the initial stimulus, the weaker the reaction

145

what is stimulus discrimination

organisms can learn to differentiate between very similar stimuli. they will respond to the good, and do nothing for the unconditioned

146

What is imprinting

when a stimulus during the "critical period" becomes accepted permanently as an element of it's behavoiral environment

147

what is an example of imprinting

baby ducks thinking that the first large thing they see is their mother

148

Who id Konrad Lorenz

the mother of the ducks

149

What is the critical period

a time in the early development when the organism is able to develop behavioral patterns

150

what is the visual critical period

a period during which if the organism doesn't get light, it's visual effectors wont't develop correctly

151

What are behavioral displays

innate communication behavior amongst a species

152

What are categories of behavioral displays

reproductive displays
agonistic displays
antagonistic displays
dancing displays

153

what is territoriality

when males space themselves out to maintain resources and competition

154

What are pheromones

chemical scents released by an organism that affects the behavoir of other organisms

155

What are releaser pheromones

pheromones that trigger a reversable behavoiral change

156

what are examples of releaser pheromones

sex-attractant pheromones
alarm and toxic defensive pheromones

157

What are primer pheromones

pheromones that produce long-term behavoiral alterations.

158

What is ecology

the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

159

what are the two components of an environment

the physical non-living (abiotic)
the living (biotic)

160

what composes the physical environment

climate
temperature
light
water
topology

161

What is the individual unit of an ecological system

the organism

162

What is a species

any group of similar organisms capable of reproducing fertile offspring

163

what is a population

a group of organisms in the same species, living together in a given location

164

What are communities

populations of different plants and animal species interacting with each other in a given environment

165

what is a biotic community

only includes the populations and their physical environment

166

what is an ecosystem

the community and the environment

167

How many of the 5 kingdoms do communities normally have

all 5 depending on each other

168

What is a biosphere

everything about the planet that supports life

169

What are the parts of the biosphere

the atmospere
the lithosphere (rock and soil surface)
the hydrosphere (sea and oceans)

170

what is the ultimate source of energy for all organisms

sunlight

171

What is the photic zone

the top layer of water into which sunlight can penetrate and photosynthetic activity can happen

172

What is the aphotic zone

the bottom layer of water where no light can get to

173

Which is worse for temperature changes moveing away from the equator or increasing altitude

they actually cause similar ecosystem changes

174

What is the substratum

the soil or rock

175

What affects the substratum

acidity
texture (affects water holding capacity)
Minerals, (nitrates, phosphates)
humus

176

What plants do well in acidic soil

rhododendrons and pines

177

what does acid rain do to the substratum

increases the acidity making it hard for certain organisms to grow

178

What are loams (soil)

it is soil that contains high percentages of each kind of soil

179

what determines humus quantity in the soil

the amount of decaying plants and animal life in the soil

180

What is the niche

the functional role of an organism in it's ecosystem

181

what is the habitat

the physical place where the organism lives

182

What does a niche include

every aspect of an organisms existence

183

What are the outcomes when species compete for resources

1. dominant species will drive the other to extiction
2. dominance in certain regions could differ, this would cause separation to those areas
3. the two species could evolve in divergent directions, changing their niche, not their location

184

What are the three kinds of heterotrophs

herbivores
carnivores
omnivores

185

What are some unique physiological aspects of herbivore

1. long digestive tracts = more surface area and time for digestion
2. symbiotic bacteria in the digestive tract
3. hooves for faster movement on grasslands
4. cutting insicors, grinding molars

186

What causes the physiological differences in herbivores

they only eat plants, and the tough cellulose-containing plant tissues are hard to digest

187

What are some behavioral differences in herbivore

they are more adept in defense because they are often prey

188

What are some physiological differences in carnivores

1. pointed teeth and fanglike canines for tearing flesh
2. shorter digestive tracts

189

What are omnivores

things that eat both plants and animals

190

What are the types of interpsecific interactions

symbiosis
predation
saprophytsm
scavenging

191

What is symbiosis

symboints live together in an intimate, often permanent association which may or may not be beneficial to both participants.

192

What is an obligatory symboitic relationship

one or both organisms can't survive without the other

193

What are the types of symbioitic relationships

commensalism
mutualism
parasitism

194

what is commensalism

one organism is benefitted, the other is unaffected

195

What are two examples of commensalism

remora and shark - remora attaches to the shark, eats it's leftovers, travels, and gets protection
barnacle and whale - barnacle attaches to the whale and gets more feeding opportunities due to the travel of the whale

196

What is mutualism

a symbiotic relationship where both organims get some benefit

197

What are examples of mutualism

tick bird and rhino
fungi and algae
nitrogen fixing bacteria and legumes
protozoa and termites
intestinal bacteria and humans

198

What is parasitism

the parasite benefits at the expense of the host

199

When does parasitism usually occur

when competition for food is most intense

200

what are the two types of parasitism

ectoparasites (cling to the outside of the organism)
endoparasites (reside inside the organism)

201

do very successful parasites kill their hosts

no, that would lead to it's own death

202

What are examples of parasites

leeches ticks
virus and host cell
disease bacteria and animals
disease fungi and animals
ringworm and humans
worms and animals

203

What is predation

when one species eats other species.

204

what usually happens with predation

predators regulate the growth of the population of the prey, but doesn't cause them to be extinct

205

What is saprophytism

when protists and fungi decompose dead organic matter externally and absorb the nutrients

206

What are scavengers

animals that consume dead animals

207

What animal could be both a scavenger and a predator

the snapping turtle

208

What are intraspecific interactions

interactions between organisms of the same species

209

what is intraspecific competition

when organisms of a species compete for the same resources, those resources get more scarce and the organisms must compete

210

what are examples of intraspecific cooperation

reproduction
protection from predators
protection from destructive weather

211

What is osmoregulation

the ability of animals to adapt to their specific water supplies

212

What is the osmoregulation of saltwater fish like

they live in a hyperosmotic environment.
they are constantly losing water
they must constantly drink, never urinate, and excrete salt through their gills

213

What is the osmoregulation of freshwater fish like

they live in a hypoosmotic environment
they are constantly taking in water and losing salt
They seldom drink, absorb salt through the gills, and excrete diluted urine

214

What is the osmoregulation of insects like

they escrete solid uric acid crystals to conserve water

215

What is the osmoregularion of a camel like

they can tolerate wide ranges of temperatures and posses fat layers that are exposed to solar radiation

216

What is the osmoregulation of the horned toad like

they have thick scaly skin that prevents water loss

217

Why do some animals burrow during the day in the desert

to look for food and avoid the heat of the day that causes water loss

218

What do non desert plants do for osmoregulation

they posses waxy cuticles on leaf surfaces, and stomata on the lower leaves.
they shed leaves in winter to prevent water loss

219

what do desert plants do for osmoregulation

they have extensive root systems, fleshy stems to store water, spiny leaves to limit water loss, extra thick cuticles, and few stomata

220

roughly what percent of energy from ATP is heat

60 %

221

What is the body temperature of poikilothermic organisms like

the temperature of their environement, becuase they give off most of the heat they produce

222

What happens to poikilotherms metabolism with external temperature changes

the metabolic rate changes drastically with temperature changes
hotter = more active cold blooders
cold = less active cold blooders

223

What are homeothermic animals

warm blooded animals

224

What keeps homeothermic animals warm

fat, hair, feathers.

225

What is the body temperature of hometherms like

it is higher than the external temperature

226

What is an advantage of being homeothermic

you can live in many different regions because you aren't affected by temperature as much

227

how is energy flow in the ecosystem done

by the food chain, or food web

228

what is the food chain

a single chain showing the transfer of energy

229

What are the participants in the food chain

1. producers
2. primary consumers
3. secondary consumers
4. tertiary consumers
5. decomposers

230

what are producers in the food chain

autotrophic green plants and chemosynthetic bacteria, because they use solar energy to manufactor carbs, lipids, and proteins.

231

What are primary consumers in the food chain

herbivores, anything that eats the green plants

232

what are secondary consumers in the food chain

animals that consume primary consumers

233

what are tertiary consumers in the food chain

animals that consume secondary consumers

234

What are decomposers

the bacteria and fungi that decompose the organic wastes and dead tissues to simpler compounds.

235

What is the food web

it is basically an expanded food chain, it shows all of the different food connections.

236

what does the number of pathways in a food web indicate

the more pathways in a food web, the more stable the system.

237

What are food pyramids

they show that with each step up the food chain, energy, total mass, and number of organisms decrease

238

What is the energy pyramid

because each level uses some energy to get the energy from the earlier with each step up the chain there is less available energy
producers have total energy that primary consumers and so on

239

what is the mass pyramid

because energy is the most at the bottom (producers) and the least at the top (tertiary consumers) the total mass of the producers is more than each level after it

240

what is the numbers pyramid

with each step up the food chain you get less and less organisms

241

What happens in material cycles

the materials usually change from inorganic to organic and back to inorganic forms

242

what is the first step of the nitrogen cycle

elemental nitrogen is inert, so lightening and nitrogen-fixing bacteria change the nitrogen to usable soluble nitrates

243

What are the steps of the nitrogen cycle

1. nitrogen is activated
2. nitrogen is taken up in plants and synthesize nucleic acids and plant proteins
3. animals eat the plants and syntesize animal proteins
4. both plants and animals die
5. proteins and nitrogens locked up in waste and dead organisms is turned to ammonia by decaying things
6. ammonia can be turned back to useless nitrogen and some is broken down to release free usable nitrogen

244

What are the four bacteria in the nitrogen cycle

1. decay
2. nitrifying
3. denitrifying
4. nitrogen fixing

245

What do nitrifyin bacteria do

turn ammonia into useless nitrogen

246

what do denitrifying bacteria do

turn ammonia into useable nitrogen

247

what do nitrogen fixing bacteria do

turn inert nitrogen into useful nitrogen

248

What are the steps of the carbon cycle

1. gasseous CO2 enters the living world through plants and photosynthesis
2. animals eat plants and the animals release CO2 through respiration
3. some carbon is left in dead things, but then decaying produces CO2 and puts it back into the air

249

what are the three requirements for a self-sustaining ecosystem

1. a stable physical environment + stable biotic community
2. a constant energy source and producers
3. cycling of materials between living system and it's environment

250

What is ecological sucession

the orderly process by which one biotic community replaces or succeeds another until a climax community is established

251

In ecological succession what is each community stage called

a sere

252

How is each sere in ecological succession indetified

by a dominant species

253

What causes community changes in ecological succession

each new community changes the environment, making it more unfavorable for itself and more favorable for the community that succeeds it.

254

At what point in ecological succession do we reach the climax community

when the succeeding community alters the environment in such a way that the original conditions that brought that community in are recreated.

255

what happens once we have our climax community

replacement stops

256

What determines what the climax community will be

abiotic factors
- rainfall
- soil conditions
- temperature
- shade

257

What causes the climax community to fail

a major change in the climate (abiotic things)
or a major change in the biotic (disease, mutations)

258

where is the evolutionary origin of plants

the seas

259

what things did plants have to overcome to move to land from the seas

1. relative lack of water
2. relative lack of food
3. varying temperatures
4. varying composition of the soil

260

What is a biome

distinct geographical regions inhabited by a distinct community

261

What are land biomes characterized by and named after

the climax vegetation of the region

262

What determines the climax animal population

the climax vegetation of the region

263

What defines a desert biome

1. recieves < 10" rain per year
2. growing season only after rainfall
3. small plants and animals
4. few birds and mammals
5. Examples (sahara and gobi)

264

What defines a grassland biome

1. low rainfall (10" - 30") per year
2. no shelter for herbivorus mammals
3. animals have long legs many are hoofed
4. Examples (praries east of the rockies, steppes of ukraine, pamapas of argentina)

265

what defines a tropical rainforest biome

1. Jungles classified by high temperatures and torrential rains
2. Climax vegetation is dense vegetation that doesn't shed leaves
3. trees grow close together
4. the floor has saprophtyes (living off dead stuff)
5. Examples (central africa, central america, amazon basin, southeast asia

266

What defines a deciduous forest biome

1. cold winters, warm summers, moderate rainfall
2. beech, maple, oaks, willows shed thier leaves during the winter
3. animals include deer, fox, woodchuck, squirrel
4. examples (northeast, cenrtal east USA, central europe)

267

What defines a temperate coniferous forest biome

1. cold, dry and inhabited by fir, pine and spruce trees
2. most plants have evolved for water conservation (needles)
3. examples (extreme northern USA and canada)

268

What defines a Taiga biome

1. less rainfall than temperate forests
2. long cold winters
3. only inhabited by the spruce
4. cheif animal is the moose (black bear, wolf, and birds)
5. examples extreme north of canada and russia

269

What defines a tundra biome

1. Treeless, frozen plain
2. very short summer and very short growing season
3. polar bears, musk oxen, artic hens

270

What defines the polar region

1. frozen area with no vegetation
2. few animals
3. animals that do live here live near the polar oceans

271

What happens to your biome change as you go up a tall mountain

you would pass through biomes just like you do as you leave the equator.

base of the mountain = temperate deciduous biome
coniferous like biome
taiga like biome
tundra like biome
polar like biome at the mountain peak

272

What determines biomes

temperature and rainfall

273

how much of the earths food and oxygen production takes place in the water

90%

274

What are the two major aquatic biomes

marina and freshwater

275

Why are aquatic biomes so stable

because the oceans are much less likely to change in any way

276

What are the three zones of the marine biome

intertidal zone
littoral zone
pelagic zone

277

What is characteristic of the intertidal zone

1. region exposed during low tide
2. variations in temperature and dryness
3. algae, sponges, clams, snails, sea urchins, starfish, crabs

278

What is characteristic of the littoral zone

1. region on the continental shelf that goes up to 600 feet deep
2. algae, crabs, crustacea, fish

279

What are the characteristics of the pelagic zone

1. the open seas (anything after the continental shelf
2. Divided into the Photic and Aphotic zones

280

What are the characteristics of the Photic zone

1. The sunlight layer of the ocean
2. 250 - 600 feet deep
3. contains plankton, microscopic photosynthetic and heterotropic organims, nekton

281

What is nekton

active swimmers like fish, sharks, whales that feed on smaller fish or plankton

282

What is the chief autotroph in the photic zone

the diatom, an algae

283

What are the characteristics of the Aphotic zone

1. Region of the ocean that receives no sunlight
2. only heterotrophs here
3. Deep sea organisms with adaptations to survive the cold, dark, high-pressure environment
4. nekton and benthos live here
5. fiercely competitive habitat

284

what are Benthos

organisms that live on or near the sea bed

285

what happened to ancient organisms that tried to adapt to land but couldn't

well they tried to do so in rivers, so instead of adapting to land, they adapted to freshwater. (some even adapted to be able to live in both)

286

What factors affect life in water

temperature
transparency
depth of water
available CO2 and O2
Salt concentration

287

How do freshwater biomes differ from marine biomes

1. Freshwater is hypotonic, so water moves into the cells. so freshwater organisms must remove their excess water
2. Swift currents exist, favoring strong muscles fish and plants with root like holdfasts
3. Freshwater biomes are very affected by climate and weather

288

What is taxonomy

the classification and nomenclature used for organisms

289

How is modern taxonomy grouping up organisms

by their evolutionary relationships

290

What is the classification system from most broad to most specific

Kingdom
Phyla (divisions)
Subphyla (subdivisions)
Classes
Orders
Families
Genera
Species

291

What is my thingy for remembering classification systems

King
Phil
Said
Classes
On
Family
Get
Spiritual

292

When is Phyla and Subphyla used

only in the animal kingdom

293

How are specific names assigned to organisms

you simply put their genus and species together
(Homo - Sapiens)

294

What is the specific name for the house cat

felis domestica

295

Who started the assignment of specific names for organisms

Carl Linn

296

What are the Five kingdoms

Monera
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia

297

How many kingdoms are there

5

298

What is the thingy to remember the 5 Kingdoms

Many
People
Find
People
Annoying

299

Why aren't viruses put into any of the kingdoms

1. because they do not carry out any activities outside of a host
2. they can be considered non-living

300

What are viruses that infect bacteria called

bacteriophages

301

What are characteristics of the monera kingdom

1. They are prokaryotes (bacteria)
2. They lack a nucleus or membrane bound organelles
3. single celled organisms
4. asexual reproduction

302

What are the characteristics of the protista kindgom

1. Primitive eukaryotic organisms
2. plant like and animal like characteristics
3. no differentiation of tissues
4. each cell can carry out all of the life processes
5. any eukaryote not classified as plants or animals

303

What are the characteristics of the fungi kingdom

1. non-photosynthetic plants
2. saprophytic or parasitic
3. varied and unique modes of reproduction
4. cell walls of chitin, not cellulose

304

How are fungi similar to plants

1. Multicellular
2. differentiated
3. nonmotile

305

how do fresh water plants deal with the hypoosmolarity of the water

they store the water in their rigid cell walls, minimizing the gradient

306

What is turgor

when a cell builds up pressure as water comes in

307

What are the characteristics of the plantae kingdom

1. multicellular organisms
2. differentiation of tissues
3. non-motile
4. photosynthetic
5. alternation of generations and a distinct embryonic phase

308

What are the characteristics of the animalia kingdom

1. Multicellular
2. generally motile
3. heterotrophic
4. differentiated tissues
5. have organs in higher forms

309

What is cyanobacteria

blue-green algae

310

where is cyanobacteria found

in freshwater, sometimes marine water

311

What are some characteristics of cyanobacteria

1. have photosynthetic pigments
2. don't have flagella, true nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria
3. can withstand extreme temperatures
4. believed to be direct descendants of the first photosynthetic organisms

312

What is most bacteria like

1. single celled prokaryotes
2. 1 double stranded DNA ring
3. no nuclear membrane
4. have cell walls
5.are important in biogeochemical cycles

313

how are some bacteria classified

by their morphoogical appearances

314

What are cocci

round bacteria

315

what are cabili

rod like bacteria

316

what are spirilla

spiral bacteria

317

what are diplococci

bacterial duplexes

318

what are staphylococci

bacterial clusters

319

what are streptococci

chain like bacteria

320

What are the two categories of the protista kingdom

protozoa
algae

321

what are protozoa

single celled heterotrophic organisms

322

What are two types of protozoa

rhizopods
ciliophors

323

What is algae

phtosynthetic single celled eukaryotes

324

What are slime molds

they are a coenocytic mass of protoplasm (many nuclei) with a unique life cycle similar to plants and animals

325

What do waxy cuticles do in plants

they minimize water loss and allow sunlight

326

What are bryophyta

simple plants with a few specialized organs and tissues

327

What is the dominant generation in bryophyta

the gametophyte

328

What are the two types of bryophyta

mosses and liverworts

329

What are liverworts

flat leaf like plants

330

What are tracheophyta

vascular plants

331

What is the dominant generation in tracheophytes

the sporophyte

332

what are the four divisions of tracheophytes

1. psilophyta
2. lycophyta
3. spenophyta
4. pterophyta

333

Which divisions of tracheophytes are almost extinct

psilophyt
lycophyta
spenophyta

334

What is an example of a pterophyta plant

fern

335

What in the coniferophyta division

conifers like cycads, pines, spruce, and fir trees

336

conifers are gymnosperms, what are gymnopserms

naked-seeded plants

337

What are the types of cones from conifers

1. Large female cones whose sporangia produce megaspores
2. small male cones whose sporangia produce microspores

338

What does deciduous mean

the leaves fall off

339

What is the anthophyta divison of plants

flowering plants known as angiosperms

340

What are the two subclasses of angiosperms

dicotyledons (dicots)
monocotyledons (monocots)

341

What are dicots

- have two cotyledons (seeded leaves)

342

What are monocots

- have seeds with single cotyledons

343

What are the 6 characteristics used to define animalia

1. Differentiation of cells
2. alimentation
3. Locomotion
4. Bilateral symmetry
5. Nervous system
6. Chemical coordinating systems

344

What kinds of foods do most animals eat

holotrophic foods

345

What are sessile animals

stationary animals that trap food

346

What are the characteristics of sponges

1. two layers of cells
2. have pores
3. are sessile
4. have low cellular specialization

347

What are the characteristics of cnidarians

1. sealed digestive sac at one end
2. Two layers (ectoderm and endoderm)
3. tentacles, stinging cells, net nerves
4. Hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, and coral

348

What are the characteristics of platyhelminthes

1. flatworms
2. three layers of cells
3. no circulatory system
4. inferior nervous system

349

What are the characteristics of nematoda

1. round worms
2. digestive tubes and anus
3. no circulatory system
4. nerve cords, and nerve ring

350

What are the characteristics of annelida

1. segmented worms
2. have a coelom
3. well defined systems
4. earthworms and leeches

351

What is a coelom

a true body cavity

352

What are the charateristics of mollucsca

1. soft bodied
2. mantles that secrete calcareous exoskeletons
3. breath by gills
4. chambered hearts
5. snails, clams, squid

353

What are the characteristics of arthropods

1. jointed appendages
2. chitin exoskeletons
3. open circulatory systems

354

What are calcareous exoskeletons

calcium carbonate

355

What are the three classes of arthropods

1. insects
2. Arachnids
3. Crustaceans

356

What are the characteristics of insects

1. Three pairs of legs
2. spiracles
3. tracheal tubes for breating

357

what are the characteristics of arachnids

1. four pairs of legs
2. book lungs
3. (spiders and scorpions)

358

what are the characteristics of crustaceans

1. segmented body
2. variable numbers of appendages
3. gills
4. lobster, crayfish, shrimp

359

What are the characteristics of echinoderms

1. spiny
2. radially symmetrical
3. water vascular system
4. regeneration of parts
5. starfish, sea urchins

360

What are the characteristics of chordates

1. have a notochord in development
2. paired gill slits
3. tail beyond the anus in development

361

What is unique about lancelets and tunicates

they are chordates, but not vertebrates

362

What are verterbrates

1. most advances chordates
2. have vertebrae
3. amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish and mammals

363

What are the characteristics of fish

1. two chambered heart
2. gills
3. use external fertilization for reproduction

364

What are the three kind of fish

1. jawless fish
2. cartilagenous fish
3. bony fish

365

What are the characteristics of jawless fish

1. eel-like
2. retain notochord
3. catrilagenous internal skeleton
4. lamprey and hagfish

366

What are the characteristics of cartilagenous fish

1. have jaws and teeth
2. reduced notochord
3. Sharks

367

What are the charateristics of bony fish

1. the most common kind of fish
2. have scales
3. lack notochord
4. bony skelton
5. tuna, sturgeon, trout

368

What are the characteristics of larval amphibia

1. larval stage found in water
2. has a tail, gills and no legs

369

What are the characteristics of adult amphibia

1. live on land
2. have lungs, two pairs of legs
3. 3 chambered heart
4. uses external fertilization
5. frog, salamander, toad, newt

370

What are the characteristics of reptiles

1. terrestrial animals
2. breath air by lungs
3. lay leathery eggs.
4. use internal fertilization
5. poikilothermic
6. turtle, lizard, snake crocodile

371

What are the characteristics of bird

1. four chambered heart
2. warm-blooded (homeothermic)
3. eggs in shells
4. hen and eagle

372

What are the characteristics of mammals

1. homeothermic
2. feed offspring with milk

373

What are the kinds of mammals

1. monetremes
2. marsupials
3. placental mammals

374

What are the charateriscics of monotremes

1. lay eggs
2. horny bills
3. milk glands with no nipples
4. duckbilled platypus and the spiny anteater

375

What are the characteristics of marsupials

1. pouched mammals
2. begins development in the uterus, finishes attached to nipples in the abdominal pouch
3. kangaroo, opossum

376

What are the characteristics of placental mammals

1. fully develop in the uterus
2. placenta
3. bats, mice, humans

377

What is evolution

the change in the genetic makeup of a population over time

378

What are the 6 main evidences of evolution

1, types of fossils
2, comparative anatomy
3. comparative embryology
4. comparative biochemistry
5. vestigial structures
6. geographic barriers

379

Where are fossils generally found

sedementary rock

380

What are the different type of fossils

1. actual remains
2. petrification
3. imprints
4. molds
5. casts

381

What is petrification

when minerals replace the cells of an organism

382

What are molds

hollow spaces in rock left from decayed organisms

383

What are casts

minerals depositing in molds

384

What are the two types of comparative anatomy

homologous structures
analogous structures

385

What are homologous structures

structures with the same features and origins

386

What are analogous structures

structures that have similar functions but different origins

387

What are examples of homologous structures

wings of a bat
flippers of a whale
forelegs of a horse
arms of humans

388

What are examples of analogous structures

wings of a fly and wings of a bird

389

What is comparative embryology

when stages of development of a more evolved organisms resemble other organisms

390

What are examples of common embryology

human fetus' have gills like fish
fish embryo's have teeth like reptiles
human embryo's have a tail

391

What is comparative biochemistry

looking at DNA, chemical processes, enzymes and genetic similarities and differences
(many organisms have common DNA sequences, indicating common ancestors)

392

What is divergence

when two species became evolutionary different
the longer ago the divergence, the more different they are now

393

What are vestigial structres

apparently useless strucutres that apparently had some use in ancestors

394

What are examples of vestigial structures

appendix in humans (helps in herbivore cellulose digestion)
Coccyx in humans (tail)
splints on the legs of the horse (two side toes of eohippus)
python has useless legs embedded in it's sides (whales have similar hind-limb bones)

395

how do geographic barriers prove evolution

once organisms of the same species were separated, they kept some of their traits and the advantageous ones were highlighted differently in each one.

396

What is systematics

a field that studies and constructs evolutionary relationships

397

What is a phylogeny

the evolutionary history of a group of organisms

398

What is cladistics

the classification of organisms based on their phylogenic tree

399

what is important in cladistics

parsimony

400

What is lamarckian evolution

it said that the useful developped traits of a parent were passed on to a child. (not true)

401

Why is lamarckian evolution wrong

only changes in DNA of sex cells can be inherited

402

What is darwins theory of natural selection

that the most fit of organisms survive and reproduce

403

What are some agents leading to evolutionary change according to darwin

1. Overpopulation (some offspring die)
2. Variations (not all offspring are the same)
3. Competition (many young die)
4. Natural selection (the best things live)
5. Inheritance of variations (the longer you live the more you reproduce)
6. Evolution of the new species (favorable changes are perpetuated)

404

What is the gene pool

the sum total of all the alleles for any given train in the population

405

What id gene frequency

the decimal fraction representing the presence of an allele for all members of the population that have this gene locus

406

What does p + q = 1 mean

that the frequency of the dominant allele (p) and the frequency of the recessive allele (q) when added must equal 1 (100%)

407

What are the 5 conditions that have to be met for a population to be in Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium

1. Population is large
2. No mutations
3. Random mating
4. no net migration in or out of the pool
5. genes in the pool can all equally reproduce

408

What is the hardy weinburg equation

p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

409

what does p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1 mean

p^2 = number of homozygous dominants
2pq = number of heterozygous
q^2 = number of homozygous recessive

410

What is microevolution

The deviations from hardy weinburg equilibrium that happen in real life

411

What are the factors in microevolution

1. natural selection
2. mutation
3. assortive mating
4. genetic drift
5. gene flow

412

What is assortive mating

some traits lead to more mating, so they will be passed on

413

What is genetic drift

changes in composition of the gene pool due to chance

414

What is gene flow

migration in or out of a population will cause a change in composition of a popluations gene flow

415

What is speciation

the evolution of a new species that can reproduce with itself and no other species

416

What are demes

small populations of interbreeding organims that begin to resemble eachother more than other organisms of the same species

417

What leads to the creation of a new species

genetic variation
environment changes
migration
adaptation
natural selection
isolation

418

at what point can one say that a new species has been created

when two individuals of the same species can't mate to form a viable offspring

419

what is adaptive radiation

the emergence of a number of species from a single ancestral species.

420

how does adaptive radiation occur

organisms diverge into specific niches

421

What are the three evolutionary patterns

1. divergent evolution
2. convergent evolution
3. parallel evolution

422

how does isolation cause evolution

when two populations of the same species are isolated, change in them become permanent and different from the other because there is no gene flow between them