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Flashcards in DAT Destroyer biology Deck (101):
1

What does DNA microarray technology allow one to do

examine many genes and determine which are expressed

2

What are monotremes

mammals that lay eggs
(platypuses and echidnas , spiny anteaters)

3

what is chitin

1. a glucose polysaccharide with Nitrogen
2. Makes up the exoskeleton of arthropods
3. in the cell walls of many fungi

4

What do oubain and digitalis do

stop the sodium potassium pump

5

what does colchicine do

inhibits microtubule activity

6

what happens when you don't have enough Iodine

the thyroid can't produce thyroxin and triiodothyronine

7

what happens to filtration rate when the afferent and efferent arteriole's vasonconstrict

when the afferent does filtration decreases
when the efferent does filtration increases

8

what is double fertilization

ONLY IN ANGIOSPERMS
1 sperm fertilizes the egg nucleus
2nd sperm fetilizes the central nuclei
(this creates a 3N endosperm nucleus)

9

What is the single metabolic pathway that will occur in all living cells

glycolysis

10

what cleavage makes identical twins possible

indeterminate cleavage (both halves are possible of becoming a viable embryo)

11

What causes the yellow skin seen in jaundice

excessive bilirubin (a bile pigment)

12

What are the rough projections on the tongue

papillae

13

what are the papillary muscles

cone shaped muscles of the heart

14

what is the ciliary muscles

the muscle of the eye that changes the lens shape

15

how many turns of the Calvin cycle produce glucose in photosynthesis

6

16

where are the calvin cycle enzymes

stroma of the chloroplast

17

what are the products of photosynthesis

O2, ATP, NADPH

18

what are echinoderms

starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers

19

are echinoderms segmented

nope

20

what is a stroke

death of nervous tissue in the brain

21

what is a hybridoma

a lymphocyte fused with a myeloma cell

22

order of abundace
RBC's, WBC's platelets

RBC's > Plateletes > WBC

23

What is a myeloma

a cancer cell with the ability for indefinite growth

24

what are prostaglandins

modified fatty acids that induce fever, pain, and inflammation.

25

what is Ecdysone

a hormone that is involved with insect molting and metamorphosis

26

during what trimester of pregnancy are organs formed

1st trimester

27

when do you start calling the embryo a fetus

8 weeks

28

how soon do many organ and limb buds begin to develop

5 weeks

29

when is a fetus most vulnerable to drugs and radiation

the first trimester

30

what are bacterial endospores, and what kind of bacteria can produce them

they are things that help bacteria build up resistance to hot, cold, chemicals, radiation, and other things
Gram positive bacteria produce them

31

what is found in lymph nodes

B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and macropahges

32

what percent of white blood cells and neutrophils

60

33

what are fixed action patterns

a coordinated response to specific environmental stressors.
spiders spin webs, animals flock together. (complex reflexes)

34

what percent of white blood cells are lymphocytes

30

35

what does the lymphatic system do

removes excess pathogens, dead blood cells, and cellular debris from cells and the spaces between them.

36

what is a biological cascade

a series of amplifying steps

37

what is catabolism

the breakdown of molecules

38

What is the first law of thermodynamics

the conservation of heat

39

What is the second law of thermodynamics

entropy of a system cannot decrease (conservation of entropy)

40

What is the third law of thermodynamics

the at K = 0 entropy = 0

41

What activates adenylyl cyclase

epinephrine

42

what does adenylyl cyclase do

ATP ----> cAMP

43

can vaccines be made from toxic byproducts of dangerous organisms

yep

44

what are attenuated vaccines

vaccines with a weakened or modified microbe. NOT a small portion of the actual microbe.

45

What is an organism that derives most or all of it's body heat from it's own metabolism

endotherms

46

What is an ectotherm

an organims that derives most of it's body heat from its surroundings

47

what is the sole purpose of the villi and microvilil

to increase surface area for absorption

48

where do sarcoma's happen

connective tissues

49

where do carcinoma's happen

epithelial tissues

50

what is the concentrated DNA at the centromeres and end of the chromosomes called

Satellite DNA

51

What is the place in the animal egg where the yolk is most concentrated

the vegetal pole

52

what is the place in the animal egg where the yolk is the least concentrated

the animal pole

53

When is the neural plate formed

when the some of the ectodermal cells elongate

54

What happens to the neural plate

it folds and becomes the neural tube. then it later becomes the brain and spinal cord

55

What is the Grey Crescent in animal eggs

it establishes the body axis, and is located on the side of the egg opposite the sperm penetration location

56

does the embryo increase in size during cleavage

nope

57

what phases of mitosis does the cleavage do

it does S and M phases, but skips G1 and G2

58

what are somites

segmented blocks of tissue that form on either side of the notocord. they can go on to produce the vertebra, or the muscles of the axial skeleton

59

are pines, spruces, and firs gymnosperms

yes

60

what is the dominant stage of the life cycle of mosses

the gametophyte

61

what are angiosperms

flowering plants
(Oaks, maples, grasses)

62

what is the genes specific location along the length of a chromosomes

locus

63

What are the five types of leukocytes
most common and least common

Neutrophil
Monocyte
Lymphocyte
Eosinophil
Basophil

64

when is an isomerase enzyme used

to convert between isomers

65

What happens between deep and water layers throughout the seasons

summer:
shallow = high in O2
deep = high in nutrients
spring and autumn:
shallow = high in nutrients
deep = high in O2

66

What is turnover

the cycling between O2 and nutrients in lakes and ponds with the seasonal changes

67

What is the function of somatostatin

supress the releases of GI hormones (gastrin, secretin, and CCK)
this causes slower gastric emptying and reduced blood flow to the intestines

68

What are the three phases of the menstrual cycle

Flow phase
proliferative phase
secretory phase

69

When does menstruation begin

with the disintegration of the endometrium

70

what is ecological succession

when one community replaces another in a predictable manner

71

what are plant gametangia

the places in plants where gametes are produced

72

what is the female gametangia (place in plants where the egg is found)

the archegonia

73

what is the male gametangia (place in plants where the sperm is found)

antheridia

74

What are the two types of immunity

cell mediated and humoral

75

what is diapedesis

the way that white blood cells slip through the endothelium of blood vessels

76

what are detritivores

organisms that consume dead or decaying organic matter

77

who is the universal blood donor

O

78

who is the universal blood acceptor

AB

79

What is the order of biomes from highest to lowest

Tundra
Tagia
temperate dedacious forests
scrub forest (chaparral)
grassland
desert
tropical rain forest
temperate rain forest

80

What is a multiple allele system

when more than two alleles exist for a gene locus (blood type)

81

What is epistasis

When the affect of one gene depends on the presence of one or more modifier genes
one trait is affected by more than one gene

82

what is pleiotropy

when one gene affects multiple, unrelated traits

83

What is the function of the smooth ER

lipid synthesis and drug detoxification

84

What kind of cellular junction holds the cells strongly together and is abundent in epithelial cells

Desmosomes

85

what is the function of tight junctions

prevent fluid from passing between cells

86

what is the function of gap junctions

they directly connect two cells cytoplasm and allows for the passing of material

87

how do osteoblasts build bone

they deposit collagen and release calcium phosphate
the mineral hydroxyapeptite is also produced

88

what is hydroxyapeptite

a mineral that helps in bone construction

89

what is edward syndrome

trisomy 18

90

what is down syndrome

trisomy 21

91

what is klinefelter syndrone

sex chromosome trisomy

92

what is turner syndrome

monosomy (XO)

93

When are karyotypes taken

during metaphase because they are most condensed

94

What things are found in prokaryotes

ribosomes
nucleic acids
plasma membrane
nucleoid

95

What things aren't found in prokaryotes

mitochondria
golgi
ER
nucleus
lysomes

96

what are the two sources of amylase

salivary glands and pancreas

97

what are the stages of spermatogenesis

spermatogonium (2N
primary spermatocyte (2N)
2- secondary spermatocytes (1N)
4- spermatids (1N)
4- spermatozoids (1N)

98

What are the two types of angiosperms

monocots (narrow leaves -grass)
dicots (broad leaves- shrubs)

99

what are plants that lack vascular tissue called

non-tracheophytes

100

what is a fruit

the ripened ovary of a flower

101

what structures control gas exchange

stomata