DAT Destroyer O Chem Flashcards Preview

DAT > DAT Destroyer O Chem > Flashcards

Flashcards in DAT Destroyer O Chem Deck (67):
1

What is the tollens reagent

Ag(NH3)2

2

What does the tollens reagent Ag(NH3)2

they are oxidizing agents that convert aldehydes to acids

3

what is the equation for double bond equivalents

(2C + 2 - H - X + N) / 2

4

what reaction is caused by
PCC
------->
CH2Cl2

the oxidation of alcohol to an aldehyde or ketone

5

What is a grignard reagent

an RMgX

6

what does a grignard reagent do

the R group Nu attacks the Carbonyl carbon and attaches, forming an alcohol

7

What is an azeotrope

an azeotrope is a constant boiling mixture that is made up of substances in a certain ratio that simple distillation cannot separate

8

Where do radicals usually add

the most substituted carbon

9

how is conversion from glucose to fructose started

removal of the alpha H

10

what is a solvolysis reaction

when the solvent acts as a nucleophile

11

which has higher boiling points alcohols or ethers

alcohols

12

what is a constitutional isomer

same formula, different connectivity

13

what do electron withdrawing groups do to adjacent bases

make them less basic

14

which is more basic a lone pair in an sp3 or sp2 orbital

the lone pair in the sp3 orbital

15

What does ___ do
RCl
----->
AlCl3

it adds the R (at least to benzene)

16

What does ____ do to a primary alkane
K2Cr2O7
------------->
H3O+

converts it to a carboxylic acid

17

what does Br2/FeBr3 do

adds bromine

18

What does _____ do to benzene
HNO3
-------->
H2SO4

adds a nitro group

19

What are activating groups (electron donators)

2HN- (How nice of you to donate)
-OH (OH, you need some money)
- OR (OR i can give you food)
- R (Really, I'll give you money
- aryl groups (Plate of food - its an aromatic group)

20

What are deactivating groups (electron withdrawers)

carbonyls
SO3H (SO! I ain't giving you money)
Cyanide (CN) is CNister
NO2 (You want money, NO!)
NR3 (No really, I'm not givin you money)

21

acivators and deactivators = o,p,m directors

Activators are OP directors
Deactivators are M directors

22

What does _______ do
I 2 excess
-------------->
Oh-

it's the haloform reaction
it removes a CH3 from a methyl ketone, replacing it with an O- group

23

what is heat of combustion

the heat required to break down the molecule

24

What does a high heat of combustion = less stability

because it does

25

Which has a higher heat of combusiton, the more or less substituted alkane

the less

26

What is the product of the claisen condensation

an anhydride

27

what does the dieckmann condensation do

cyclizes half of a diester

28

what kinds of molecules would easily be converted into a grignard reagent

those without acidic protons

29

what is the product of a benzylacid chloride and a benzoic acid

an anhydride with two benzyl groups

30

what does CH3CHOOOH do to alkenes

forms an epoxide

31

what does ______ do
C2H5OH
-------------->
H+

the C2H5O- Nu attacks the more substituted carbon

32

What does ________ do
TsCl
------>
Pyr

the Ts replaces the H of an OH group (to be later replaced by another Nu)

33

how are bicyclo compounds named

1. bridghead recieves C1
2. Numbers in parentheses indicate how many carbons are between the two bridgeheads

34

what things give positive tests with Br2/CCl4 and cold dilute KMnO4

things with double bonds (benzene doesn't count, the double bonds are not normal due to resonance hybridization)

35

how many products can the chlorination of 2 methylbutane

6 (including stereoisomers)

36

which things favor which type of reaction
Nucleophilic substitution
Nucleophilic addition
Electophilic addition
electrophilic substitution

Esters and amides do Nu substitution
Aldehydes and ketones do Nu addition
alkenes and alkynes do electrophilic addition
aromatic compounds usually do electrophilic substitution

37

What does _____ do
LiAlH4, Et2O
------------------->
H3O+

1. reduces aldehydes to primary alcohols
2. reduces ketones to secondary alcohols
3. esters into primary alcohols
4. carboxylic acids into primary alcohols
5. doesn't reduce double or triple bonds

38

what happens when you react an aldehyde with a amide

the carbonyl carbon of the aldehyde double bonds to the Nitrogen of the amide

39

what does K2Cr2O7/H do to a secondary alcohol

turns it into a ketone

40

what does (R)3 P+ -CH2/ DMSO do to a carbonyl

replaces the O with the R group

41

what does B2H2, THF / H2O2, OH- do to a double bond

anti markovnikov addition of OH to the double bond

42

What does 1) CH3 MgBr / 2) H3O+ do with esters

2 moles of the grignard will react with it to form a tertiary alcohol

43

what is a lactone

a cyclic ester

44

What happens when an aldehyde is reacted with dilute acid or a base

if it has alpha hydrogens it will do aldol condensation

45

What will Cl2(excess) /OH- do to a carbonyl

it will replace all of the alpha hydrogens

46

When can heating carboxylic acids result in decarboxylation

only when you heat a beta-keto acid (a carboxylic acid on the beta carbon of a Ketone)

47

what kind of reaction is a double dehydrohalogenation

E2

48

would R-CN be replaced by I- in a reaction

nope

49

What does a large sterically hindered base do to a carbonyl

it will remove the most accessable alpha H

50

if you have an acid with a pKa of 5, at pH 7 is it mostly the acid or the ion

ion

51

When do we create a carbocation

nitration
sulfonation
alkylation
acylation
halogenation

52

What happens when doing alkylation if you have 3 carbons or more in a linear fashion

it rearranges, and will bond a more substituted carbon

53

what does Br2/heat do when there is a C-h group off of a benzene ring

it will replace the benzylic H

54

what are exceptions to the rule that atoms bound to more electronegative atoms are electron withdrawing groups

NO = activating group
Halogens = activating groups

Secondary and tertiary Amines are withdrawing groups even though they have less electronegative atoms after it

55

what does Zn(Hg)/HCL do to a carbonyl group

completely remove the carbonyl, turn it into CH2

56

what does 1) Sn, HCL/ 2) OH- do to a nitrobenzene

turns the nitro group into an amine (aniline)

57

why does Br2 and light, or NBS attack benzylic H's

because that creates the most stable radical

58

what do peroxide initiators do

allow one to create a polymer

59

what does Br2/CH2Cl2 do to a double bond

adds Br to both sides of the double bond (reduces it too)

60

What is the order of best to worst leaving groups amongst the halides

I>Br>Cl>F

61

What is 3 benzene groups attached to a P with a lone pair going to do to a alkyl halide

replace the halide. then it is deprotonated by a strong base (Li) this creates a witting reagent.

62

What does the witting reagent do to a carbonyl

replaces the C=O bond with C=R(of the wittig reagent)

63

what is the order of polarity
least to most

alkanes
alkenes
ethers
esters
aldehydes and ketones
alcohols
carboxylic acids

64

what would H3O+ do to a lactone

lacone is a cyclic ester
it cuts it and OH adds to the carboxylic acid

65

what does the jones reagent do to alcohols

turns them into aldeydes and ketones

66

what do electron withdrawing groups do to acidity

increase it

67

what happens to amides when reacting with water

the NH group will be replaced by O- in basic conditions
the NH group will be replaced by OH in acidic conditions