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Flashcards in DAT bootcamp test 3 Deck (69):
1

What is the endosymbiotic theory

that eukaryotic cells originated from a mutualistic relationship between two prokaryotes
(mitochondria and chloroplasts were prokaryotes

2

What 5 things are evidence of the endosymbiotic theory

1. mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA that is circular without proteins
2. mitochondria and chloroplasts have different ribosomes
3. mitochondria and chloroplasts reproduce individually of the cell by a process similar to binary fission
4. mitochondria and chloroplasts have a double membrane (could have come from one prokaryote engulfing another)
5. thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts resemble those of the photosynthetic membranes of cyanobacteria

3

What are the chromosome/chromatid numbers for humans through meiosis

1. Normal = 23 chromosomes (46 chromatids)
2. After duplication = 46 chromosomes (92 chromatids)
3. After meiosis 1 = 23 chromosomes (46 chromatids)
4. after meiosis 2 = 23 chromosomes (23 chromatids)

4

What are the chromosome/chromatid numbers for humans through mitosis

1. Normal - 23 Chromosomes (46 chromatids)
2. after duplication = 46 chromosomes (92 chromatids)
3. after mitosis = 46 chromosomes (46 chromatids)

5

what are the products of light dependent reactions of photosynthesis

O2, NADPH, ATP

6

What are the products of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis

Glucose, NADP+, ADP

7

What are the substrates of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis

O2, NADPH, ATP, CO2, Rubisco

8

What is the fluid mosaic model

macromolecules float around on top of the sea of phospholipids

9

What are tight junctions and where are they found

cell junctions that prevent the passage of materials between digestive tract cells in animals (they are found at the top of the cells)

10

what are desmosomes and where are they found

anchoring junctions that provide mechanical stability often seen in animal skin cells

11

What are desmosomes made of

keratin to hold cells together

12

What are gap junctions

narrow protein channels in animal cells that allow for the exchange of small ions and molecules (not cytoplasm)
cell to cell communication or electrical impulse

13

What are plasmodesmata

narrow protein channels between plant cells

14

what are siRNA

small interfering RNA, they interfere with the expression of genes

15

What are tetrads

pairs of homologous chromosomes (4 chromatids)

16

Why does yeast undergo anaerobic respiration in the absence of oxygen?

to oxidize NADH to NAD+ (that way NAD+ can go and allow glycolysis to produce more ATP)

17

what is the evolution of fish from earliest to latest

jawless fish
cartilagenous fish
Lobe-finned fish

18

What are lacteals and what do they do

lymphatic capillaries that absorb fats in the small intestine

19

What things does the hypothalamus control

body temperature
hunger
thirst
sleep
circadian cycles

20

What does the pons do

relays signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum

21

what does the medulla control

respiration
digestion
heart pumping

22

what does the cerebellum do

motor control (balance and coordination)

23

what does the frontal lobe do

reasoning
planning
problem solving

24

What does the parietal lobe do

orientation
recognition
perception

25

what does the occipital lobe do

visual processing

26

what does the temporal lobe do

recognition of auditory stimuli
memory
speech

27

what does the corpus callosum do

axons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain

28

what does the hippocampus do

associated with memory and learning

29

what are the parts of the limbic system

hypothalamus and hippocampus

30

what can't be found in the filtrate from the bowmans capsule

red blood cells and proteins

31

what causes rigor mortis

New ATP isn't formed so the myosin actin cross bridges can't be undone

32

What is CCK and what does it do

Cholecystokenin, a small intestine hormone produced in response to fats. It stimulates the gall bladder to release bile

33

what does secretin do

causes the pancrease to produce bicarbonate

34

what two structures form the placenta

chorion and endometrium

35

What is the difference between pluripotent cells and totipotent cells

pluripotent cells are stem cells that can form any of the three germ layers. they cannot however produce extraembryonic tissue like the placenta, so they can't develop into an entire organism
totipotent cells are the calls that make up the morula and such, they can become an entire organism

36

How are totipotent cells created

from somatic cellst (they are reverted to totipotent cells)

37

All of the following are ways genetic variation can be introduced to bacteria

Heat shock with CaCl2
Electroporation
Transduction
Conjugation

38

What are the three types of animal movement

kinesis
Taxis
migration

39

What is kinesis (animal movement)

animal moves in a random direction, slowing down in favorable environments and speeding up in unfavorable ones

40

What is taxis (animal movement)

an animal moves in a specific direction due to a stimulus

41

What is migration

long distance movement of animals based on the season

42

who is the animal with the most fitness

the one with the most viable offspring

43

what is the definition of a boiling point

when the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the surrounding pressure

44

what is volatility

the ability of a liquid to evaporate

45

what substances have the greatest volatitily

those with the weakest intermolecular forces

46

What is the formula for finding [H+] from a weak acid and Ka

[H+} = square root of Ka x M

47

what is cathodic protection

making a steel pipe the cathode, and something else like Zinc the anode so that the zinc dissolves and not the steel

48

Which molecular shape is characterized by having 3 bonding domains and 1 non-bonding domain?

trigonal pyrimidal

49

what is the difference of electron pair geometry and molecular geometry

molecular geometry just shows the shape of the molecules peices (don't show the electron pairs)

50

What gives the molecular geometry of a seesaw

4 groups and 1 electron pair

51

What gives the molecular geometry T-shaped

3 groups, 2 e- pairs

52

What gives the molecular geometry of octahedral

6 groups

53

What gives the molecular geometry of square pyrimidal

5 groups and 1 e- pair

54

What gives the molecular geometry of square planar

4 groups and 2 e- pairs

55

What are spectator ions

ions that don't change states in both sides of the equation

56

what are some rules to know for solubility

ammonium salts usually dissolve
halide salts usually dissolve

57

During a titration experiment, the titrant placed in...

a buret

58

what kind of addition does HBr (not HCl and HI) and H2O2 do

antimarkovnikov (free radical addition)

59

What kind of transition states do SN2 reactions create

a pentivalent TS

60

What is the difference between transition states and intermediates

transition states can't be isolated

61

Which of the following methods would MOST effectively separate two volatile compounds?

Gas-liquid chromatography

62

which can do more H bonding alcohols or carboxylic acids

carboxylic acids

63

What is the product of the reaction with toluene and
1. H2SO4, HNO3
2. Sn, HCL
3. anhydride and pyridine

1. Nitro group is added para to the methyl (it's a donating)
2. Sn, HCl converts the nitro group into an amine
3. anhydride is attacked by the amine at the carbonyl carbon, the other half leaves as a good leaving group

64

how are grignard reagents prepared

1. primary alcohol converted to a primary halide (PBr3)
2. then you add a metal (Mg)

65

What is the major product of the following reaction?
secondary alcohol with 1. NaH 2. CH3Br

the alcohol is deprotonated, then alcohol then attacks the Alkyl halide (SN2) this is called williamson ether synthesis

66

What is the product of reacting a carboxylic acid with
1. H+, CH3OH, heat
2. CH3MgBr (excess) Et2O
3. H3O+

1. the carboxylic acid will be esterified
2. then the grignard will add two CH3's
3. the H3O+ will protonate the O-

A tertiary alcohol is produced

67

rank the bonds from longest to shortest
C--Br
C--C
C--H(triple bond)

That's the order
because the molecules are the largest
larger molecules = longer bonds

68

What is one thing to remember when determining stability of a resonance structure for benzene rings

the most stable form will often have the ring intact (maintaining aromaticity)

69

What does the log10 of 100 =
what does the log10 of 100000 =

2
5
(10^x)