Biology chapter 27-28 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology chapter 27-28 Deck (36):
1

In what ways do different animals obtain food? Describe what each means.

Herbivore- eats plants

Carnivore- eats animals

Detritivore- eats decaying plants/animals

Filter feeder- filters food particles out of water

2

Which parts of the plant provide more nutrients for herbivores?

Seeds and fruits

3

How do parasites obtain nutrients? How is the host affected?

By eating the host’s tissues or body fluids, the host is affected negatively (sick)

4

What are the differences between intracellular and extracellular digestion?

Intracellular means the food is digested and broken down inside the cells

Extracellular- food broken down outside of cells in digestive system (enzymes)

5

What types of animals use intracellular digestion?

Sponges (simple)

6

If an animal processes food using an extracellular digestion what types of systems might they use?

Gastrovascular cavity- one opening/ cnidarians

Digestive tract- 2 openings (mouth and anus) / vertebrates, arthropods, annelids

7

What is the difference between a gastrovascular cavity and a digestive tract? List an example of an animal who

displays each of these methods.

Gastrovascular cavity- one opening/ cnidarians

Digestive tract- 2 openings (mouth and anus) / vertebrates, arthropods, annelids

8

Why are carnivore digestive tracts typically shorter than herbivores?

Because they can readily break down meat tissues with enzymes

9

Describe the teeth of a carnivore vs. an herbivore.

Herbivore- flat and large grinding surface

Carnivore- sharp, good for tearing and slicing

10

Herbivores depend on __________________________ because they cannot break down cellulose.

Symbiotic bacteria

11

What is a rumen?

Digestive organ which contains symbiotic bacteria that digest the cellulose from plant material

12

What types of animals use diffusion for gas exchange?

Simple small invertebrates (roundworms, flatworms, cnidarians, sponges)

13

What are the 3 requirements for respiration?

Moist, permeable, thin membrane for diffusion of O2 from outside of body into cells

14

What are gills? What type of animals use gills?

Respiratory structures that allow aquatic animals to exchange gases from the water into their blood/cells

Aquatic invertebrates; and most aquatic chordates

15

What are lungs? What aquatic animals use lungs?

Organs that exchange gases between blood and air

Aquatic mammals and reptiles (dolphins, sea turtles)

16

Compare/contrast the respiration of earthworms, spiders, insects, and mollusks.

Earthworms use diffusion

Spiders use book lungs

Insects use tracheal tubes

Land mollusks use mantle cavities

17

Compare/contrast the structure of lungs between amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

Amphibians- simple sac with ridges

Reptiles- divided into chambers (larger SA)

Mammals- extensively branched (very large SA)

Birds- continuous fresh air, consistent diffusion of gases into/out of blood (most efficient)

18

What are alveoli?

Bubble-like sacs in mammal lungs that increases Surface area!

19

What is the difference between open and closed circulatory systems. List an animal that has each type.

Open- blood not entirely contained within circulatory system (dumps into sinuses for gas exchange to

cells/tissues)

Closed- blood is entirely contained within circulatory system (gas exchange takes place in capillaries)

20

What is the organ that pumps blood around the body of an animal?

heart

21

Where does the blood diffuse from the vessels to the cells of the body in a closed circulatory system?

capillaries

22

How are single and double looped circulatory systems different? Describe the pathway of blood in each type,

and provide an example of an animal for each.

Single- blood is pumped from ventricle to gills (to get oxygen rich blood) then carried to body for gas

exchange (no oxygen poor blood), then back to heart

Double- blood is pumped from ventricle to lungs (to get oxygen rich blood) then carried back to heart.

Second loop is when blood is pumped to body and gas exchange occurs (now oxygen poor blood), then

back to heart to be pumped by 1st loop to lungs again

23

What is the difference between a ventricle and an atrium?

Ventricle- pumps blood away from heart atrium- receives blood from the body/lungs

24

How are the hearts of amphibians, reptiles, and mammals different? How does this difference make mammal

hearts more efficient?

Amphibians have 3 chambers, 1 ventricle where oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood mix before being

pumped to either the lungs or body

Reptiles have 3 chambers, 1 ventricle with a partial partition, which minimizes the mixing of oxygen

poor and rich blood

Mammals have 4 chambers, 2 separate ventricles, keeps oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood separate

25

Why do animals need to get rid of ammonia from their bodies?

Because it is poisonous to their cells

26

How can animals eliminate ammonia from the body? (2 big ways)

Immediately through diffusion or convert to less hazardous form to be stored and eliminated later

27

What is a kidney?

Organ that helps separate wastes and excess water from the blood

28

How are kidneys involved in water balance?

Help conserve water or eliminate excess water from blood & body tissues so homeostasis is maintained

29

How do aquatic animals get rid of their waste?

Diffusion (usually)

30

Describe the different issues of maintaining water balance that freshwater vs. saltwater fish have.

Freshwater- need to get rid of excess water that enters body due to more salts dissolved in their cells

than surrounding water

Don’t drink water, bring salt in body, excrete dilute urine

Saltwater- need to conserve water & get rid of salt due to water having more salts than the cells of body

Drink water, pump salt out of body, excrete concentrated urine

31

What are nephridia? What types of animals use nephridia?

Tube-like excretory structures that filter body fluid, produce urine (annelids & mollusks)

32

What are Malpighian tubules? What types of animals have Malpighian tubules?

Structures that concentrate nitrogenous wastes from body fluid, produce uric acid (insects & arachnids)

33

Mammals and land amphibians convert ammonia into __________ before eliminating the waste from the body.

Urea- excreted in urine these animals have separate openings for urine and feces

34

What is urea?

Converted ammonia (which is produced by metabolism, so it is a metabolic waste)

35

Reptiles and birds convert ammonia into _________________ before eliminating the wastes from the body.

Uric acid these animal use the same opening to eliminate uric acid and feces

36

What is uric acid?

Converted ammonia- excreted through the digestive tract