Flashcards in Biology & Immunology Deck (59)
4 Bases of DNA
Process for DNA to RNA via RNA polymerase
Process from mRNA to strand of amino acids which forms a protein
Essential Amino Acids
Which cells don't proliferate after birth?
Which cells are capable of self-renewal?
2 Types of Growth Factors
Stimulate cell division
Inhibit cell division
Cell Cycle Phases
Define G0 Phase
A resting phase where the cell has left the cycle & has stopped dividing
Define G1 Phase
Cells increase in size
What is the G1 checkpoint?
Control mechanism ensures that everything is ready for DNA synthesis
Define S Phase
DNA replication occurs during this phase
Define G2 Phase
Gap between DNA synthesis & mitosis
Cell continues to grow
What is the G2 checkpoint?
Control mechanism ensures that everything is ready to enter the M phase & divide
Cell growth stops at this stage & cellular energy is focused on the orderly division into two daughter cells
What is the metaphase checkpoint?
Ensures that the cell is ready to complete cell division
2 Categories of Cancer Genes
Recessive: tumor suppressor
Define Gain of Function Mutations
Altered or unregulated activity of a "photo-oncogene" leads to tumorigenesis
Define Loss of Function Mutations
Loss of activity of tumor suppressors results in unregulated pathways and tumorigenesis
"Hallmarks of Cancer"
Self-sufficiency in growth signals
Insensitivity to anti-growth signals
Limitless reproductive potential
Capacity to invade other tissues
Tissue invasion & metastases
How do cancer cells invade our bodies?
CSCs forming resistant phenotypes
Interactions with microenvironment
Invadopodia & aquaporins
Actin rich membrane protrusion formed by invasive cancer cells (protrude through basement membranes)
Stage 0: mucosa level
Stage 1: through the submucosa
Stage 2: through the muscle layers
Stage 3: through the serosa
Stage 4: through serosa and spread to other organs
# of Mutations with Gain of Function
Single mutation event
# of Mutations with Loss of Function
2 mutation events
How do proto-oncogenes normally function?
Associated with cell growth, cell division, & cell differention
What can proto-oncogenes be?
Cell surface receptors
Type of Cells in Carcinomas
Types of Cells in Sarcomas
Connective tissue cells