Biology Plant Structure and Function Flashcards Preview

Introduction to Veterinary Terminology > Biology Plant Structure and Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology Plant Structure and Function Deck (87)
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1

Meristem cells

First cells when a plant embryo begins to develop

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Apical meristems

Tissues located at the ends of a plant

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Epidermal, ground, vascular

3 types of apical meristems

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Epidermal tissue

forms the outer protective covering of a plant; cells exposed to air are covered by a waxy cuticle, restricting water loss and resists attacks from microorganisms.

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Ground tissues

Fills the interior of a plant and helps carry out the functions of a particular organ; includes 3 types of simple tissues: parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells, sclerenchyma cells

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Parenchyma cells

Type of simple ground tissue; has thin walls, are active in photosynthesis and storage

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collenchyma cells

Type of simple ground tissue; provides support for primary tissues, has irregularly shaped corners and thicker cell walls.

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sclerenchyma cells

Type of simple ground tissue; fibrous cells that give stalks their gravity-resisting strength.

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Vascular tissue

Tissue that extends from the root through the stem to the leaves, and vice versa; 2 types of vascular tissues: xylem and phloem.

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Xylem and Phloem

2 types of vascular tissue in vascular plants

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Xylem

Type of vascular tissue in plants; transports water and minerals from roots to leaves; contains two types of conducting cells: vessel elements and tracheids.

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vessel elements and tracheids

Two types of conducting cells in Xylem; dead at maturity, cell walls interconnect to form pipelines for water flow.

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Phloem

Type of vascular tissue in plants; transports sugar, in the form of sucrose, and other organic compounds such as hormones, often from leaves to roots; conducting cells are called sieve-tube members and have a cluster of pores in their end walls collectively known as a sieve plate.

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sieve tube members

The conducting cells of phloem; collectively known as a sieve plate; each one has a companion cell.

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Shoot system

In above ground vascular plants; contains the stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits; anatomy consists of a lateral bud, node, internode, and terminal bud

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Root system

the underground portion of a plant that anchors it in the soil and absorbs water and dissolved minerals; consists of root and root tip which also contains and apical meristem and produces primary growth downward.

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perennial plants

Those that can outlast winter because their roots can survive to produce new shoots in spring.

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Annual plants

Those that survive for one season only.

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Monocots and Eudocots

2 major groups of flowering plants

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cotyledons

Embryonic leaves present in seeds; the main difference between the 2 groups of flowering plants

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Monocots

Plants whose embryos have one cotyledon; these cotyledons store some nutrients and act as a transfer tissue for nutrients stored elsewhere.

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Eudicots (dicots)

Plants whose embryos have two cotyledons; these cotyledons supply nutrients for seedlings.

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Leaves

chief organs of photosynthesis; composed of a blade attached to a peitiole, stalk that connects blade to stem.

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Structures of leaves

Simple leaf-blade is undivided
Compound leaf-blade is divided

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Mesophyll

Interior of a leaf; tissue that carries out photosynthesis and vascular tissue that transports water and minerals to the leaf and sugar out.

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Palisade and spongy

2 distinct regions of mesophyll in a leaf

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Palisade mesophyll

Contains elongated, tightly packed cells which increases the surface area for the absorption of sunlight.

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Spongy mesophyll

Contains irregularly shaped cells surrounded by air spaces; loosely packed arrangement increases amount of surface area for gas exchange and water loss.

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non-woody stems

Herbaceous plants that experience only primary growth (zinnias, mint, daisies); outermost layer is epidermis covered by cuticle; in eudicot stem, beneath epidermis is cortex and ground tissue in center is the pith; monocots stem lacks cortex and pith; xylem on inside of stem, phloem on outside

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Cortex

Narrow bond of parenchyma cells beneath the epidermis in eudicot stems; sometimes green and carries on photosynthesis