Flashcards in Biology Plant Structure and Function Deck (87)
First cells when a plant embryo begins to develop
Tissues located at the ends of a plant
Epidermal, ground, vascular
3 types of apical meristems
forms the outer protective covering of a plant; cells exposed to air are covered by a waxy cuticle, restricting water loss and resists attacks from microorganisms.
Fills the interior of a plant and helps carry out the functions of a particular organ; includes 3 types of simple tissues: parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells, sclerenchyma cells
Type of simple ground tissue; has thin walls, are active in photosynthesis and storage
Type of simple ground tissue; provides support for primary tissues, has irregularly shaped corners and thicker cell walls.
Type of simple ground tissue; fibrous cells that give stalks their gravity-resisting strength.
Tissue that extends from the root through the stem to the leaves, and vice versa; 2 types of vascular tissues: xylem and phloem.
Xylem and Phloem
2 types of vascular tissue in vascular plants
Type of vascular tissue in plants; transports water and minerals from roots to leaves; contains two types of conducting cells: vessel elements and tracheids.
vessel elements and tracheids
Two types of conducting cells in Xylem; dead at maturity, cell walls interconnect to form pipelines for water flow.
Type of vascular tissue in plants; transports sugar, in the form of sucrose, and other organic compounds such as hormones, often from leaves to roots; conducting cells are called sieve-tube members and have a cluster of pores in their end walls collectively known as a sieve plate.
sieve tube members
The conducting cells of phloem; collectively known as a sieve plate; each one has a companion cell.
In above ground vascular plants; contains the stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits; anatomy consists of a lateral bud, node, internode, and terminal bud
the underground portion of a plant that anchors it in the soil and absorbs water and dissolved minerals; consists of root and root tip which also contains and apical meristem and produces primary growth downward.
Those that can outlast winter because their roots can survive to produce new shoots in spring.
Those that survive for one season only.
Monocots and Eudocots
2 major groups of flowering plants
Embryonic leaves present in seeds; the main difference between the 2 groups of flowering plants
Plants whose embryos have one cotyledon; these cotyledons store some nutrients and act as a transfer tissue for nutrients stored elsewhere.
Plants whose embryos have two cotyledons; these cotyledons supply nutrients for seedlings.
chief organs of photosynthesis; composed of a blade attached to a peitiole, stalk that connects blade to stem.
Structures of leaves
Simple leaf-blade is undivided
Compound leaf-blade is divided
Interior of a leaf; tissue that carries out photosynthesis and vascular tissue that transports water and minerals to the leaf and sugar out.
Palisade and spongy
2 distinct regions of mesophyll in a leaf
Contains elongated, tightly packed cells which increases the surface area for the absorption of sunlight.
Contains irregularly shaped cells surrounded by air spaces; loosely packed arrangement increases amount of surface area for gas exchange and water loss.
Herbaceous plants that experience only primary growth (zinnias, mint, daisies); outermost layer is epidermis covered by cuticle; in eudicot stem, beneath epidermis is cortex and ground tissue in center is the pith; monocots stem lacks cortex and pith; xylem on inside of stem, phloem on outside