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Flashcards in Intro to Biology Deck (145)
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1

Polymers

The result of monomers being linked together through polymerization

2

Carbohydrates

Macromolecules that are a source of energy and structure for many organisms

3

Lipid

Macromolecule used by the body to store energy and form membranes and barriers around cells

4

Nucleic Acid

Macromolecule comprised of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus; examples include RNA and DNA, which are responsible for storing genetic information

5

Protein

Macromolecule responsible for controlling many cell processes and serving as enzyme within chemical reactions

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Photosynthesis

Process of using light to make sugar from carbon dioxide and water

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Biopolymer

Natural polymer produced by living organisms

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Glycogen

Stores energy in the muscles and liver of humans and other animals

9

Starches

Soluble, helical sugar structures produced by plants and used to store energy

10

Cellulose

Dietary fiber; plants use it for rigid structures, particularly plant stems

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Complex Lipids

contain additional elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur

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Simple Lipids

Contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

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Triol

Carbon chain with three alcohol groups (-OH groups)

14

Unsaturated Fat

Long-chain hydrocarbon with at least one double bond

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Phospholipid

Long-chain hydrocarbon held together by a phosphate group

16

Nucleotides

Four monomers that make up RNA and DNA

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

19

Proteins

Extremely large polypeptides with molecular masses of 5,000 to 40,000,000 g/mol

20

Amino Acid

A molecule that has an NH2 group and a carboxylic acid group on a single carbon; considered the building block of life

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Polypeptides

Many amino acids bonded together by an amide bond

22

Hierarchy

a way of dividing and organizing topics for studying

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Biosphere

contains all living things on Earth and the ecosystems upon which they rely

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Emergent Properties

properties observed that aren’t present in the preceding level of the hierarchy

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Biomes

Highest levels of complexity (Amazon rainforest/Arctic tundra)

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Systems biology

study of organisms and how they interact with their environment and other organisms

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Cells

the fundamental units of any organism

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Unicellular

consist of only one cell (e.g. bacteria)

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Homeostasis

the stability of internal conditions

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Three domains of life

Bacteria, archaea, and eukarya