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Flashcards in Bismarck Foreign Policy Deck (21)
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What did Bismarck immediately begin to do?

began task of building Prussian military through:
- conscription
- establishing military college to developed skilled officer elite
- constructing network of railways to move army and supply forces with modern artillery.


What was Bismarck's political goal?

to establish Prussian dominance of German states using diplomacy (comm. and negotiations) and developing aggressive foreign policy. Also economic unity of Germany.


What did Bismarck skilfully do?

negotiated alliances with neighbours whilst isolating and moving Prussian military mights against others.

He believed in 'Blood and Iron' using military force, ignoring parliament by collecting taxes needed to build efficient army.


What did Bismarck know was the main obstacle in German unification?

knew Austria was main obstacle in achieving Prussian dominance.


What was the first opportunity to challenge Austria?

Came OUT of the Danish War.


When did Danish war end?



What did Bismarck use before the Danish war?

used diplomatic crisis for political gain.


What was the war about?

the status of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein had been in dispute for while.
Their population was mainly German, and Holstein was a member of the Confederation; but they were ruled by Danish King, and Danish nationalists wanted to incorporate them in Denmark.


What did the new king of Shleswig and Holstein do?

in 1863, the new king, Christian IX, decreed a closer union of duchies with Denmark.

there was outcry in Germany as German prince was rival claimant to the duchies and German nationalists as large majority were German speakers.


What did Bismarck do using this dispute over the possession of the two territories?

used 'blood and iron'. He persuaded Austria to join Prussia in war to seize control of Shles. and Holstein.
Defeated the Dances in 1864, lasting seven days.


What was the outcome of the Danish War?

- Danes overthrown and Christian IX forced to renounce all claims to Schleswig and Holstein.
- Gastein Convention of 1865 = agreement where Prussia received Schleswig and Austria received Holstein.


What happened a year after Gastein Convention of 1865?

By 1866, Prussia and Austria was in dispute over manner in which S + H was governed.

Bismarck wanted both territories, preparing for war and isolated Austria, using Bismarckian policy.


What alliances did Bismarkc create in preparation for war against Austria?

allied with Russia and Italy, and gained neutrality of France in return of 'compensation' to Napoleon III.


What did Bismarck accuse Austria of doing?

Bismarck accused Austria of violating conditions of Gastein Convention and announced intention to annex S + H.


What did Austria do in response to Bismarck's accusation and intention?

called on military assistance of other German Confederation and declared war on Prussia.


What was the outcome of the 1866 war with Prussia and Austria?

Reorganised Prussian army proved superior by winning war in 7 weeks.
Austrians were defeated at the battle of Sadowa on July 3rd, 1866.


What did Prussia do after the defeat of Austria?

Created the Treaty of Prague


What was the Treaty of Prague?

Treated Austria leniently, with only territorial loss of Venetia to Italy.
Agreed to establish German Confederation, and exclusion from German unification.
Recognising Prussia's leadership of North German Confederation of 22 states.


What did Prussia annex after War was Austria and Treaty of Prague?

Annexed Holstein, Schleswig, Frankfurt etc.
Prussian territory stretched from French Frontier to Poland.


What did the King of Prussia demand when Austria defeated?

demanded Austria lose areas of territory as punishment but Bismarck opposed, deeming clemency to secure Austrian friendship in future.


What did Bismarck gain in gaining territory and establishing a new Confederation?

gained popular political support in Prussia, achieving what the liberals failed to achieve in 1848.

Most of the northern German states were in the Confederation, the next step was to bring southern states into Confederation and create nation.