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What did Germany comprise of? How were they connected?

a group of independent states such as Prussia, Austria, Saxony - bound together by language and culture.


What influenced move towards unification?

INfluence of French revolution (1789) and invasion of Napoleon Bonparte's armies in Europe accelerated move towards unification.


What did Napoleon control by 1810?

controlled France, Belgium, some Italian and German states


What did Napoleon do as part of the French Confederation of the Rhine?

reduced no. of German states from 300 to 38


Who defeated Napoleon?

defeated by Russia and went into exile


What happened with Napoleon's defeat?

conservative politicians hoped to restore the ruling families of Europe to their position of power.m


What was the Congress of Vienna and when did it occur?

European monarchs joined forces to repress liberal thinking and the political change unleashed by the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era, delaying German unification.

occurred in 1815


What was the Congress of Vienna under leadership of and how did this effect Germany?

Under leadership of Austrian Politician, Prince Klemens von Metternich.
Metternich didn't want Germany unified as will change power of Austrian King, therefore Germany remains a loose confederation of states.

He also devised system, with the European monarchs, called 'Concert of Europe' as means of settling of disputes without war .


Even with the COngress of Vienna what remained the same?

Napoleon's influence didn't end in 1815.
there were legal reforms, changes to gov admin, breaking down barriers.
Spread ideas that establish new political and social systems throughout Europe.


What happened in 1848?

series of revolutions broke out across Europe.


Why did the revolutions break out? What was the outcome?

- Revolutionaries wanted to limit power of monarchs, establish a representative gov and ensure basic freedom from aristocracy.
- German revolutionaries hoped to unify the federal states of Germany and build a modern nation

However, revolutions failed.


What were the 2 things that challenged the power of conservative leaders?

nationalism and liberalism


What role did nationalism have in creating a sense of Germany unity?

- a powerful ideology (national identity)
- revolutions with the core belief that ppl could govern themselves through the creation of 'nation' emerged.
- Napoleonic era heightened the consciousness of the common culture and language of the independent German states, even just by recognising France as common enemy.
- The French Revolution and fear of Napoleon's armies sparked German nationalism and a move towards unification.


What role did Liberalism have in creating a sense of Germany unity?

- demands for basic rights, e.g. freedom of speech
- major development in technology resulted in revolution in European industry and the expanding urban class of manufactures and business man encouraged liberalism
- Liberalism demanded constitution that would define rules of gov. and limit the gov. power and guarantee rights of citizens


How did both nationalism and liberalism play a role in the unification?

encouraged desire for political change through limits to the power of old European aristocracy.