Flashcards in Blood and Blood Development Deck (97):
Makes up 55% of the total blood volume
What percentage of plasma is water?
What percentage of plasma is proteins?
Albumin is a major protein component that functions to maintain the ...
osmotic pressure of blood
What percentage of plasma is amino acids, glucose, hormones, and other regulatory substances?
What percentage of plasma is inorganic salts?
A measurement of the average size of RBCs
mean corpuscular volume
is a calculation of the average amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin inside a RBC
mean corpuscular hemoglobin
is a calculation of the average percentage of hemoglobin inside a RBC
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
is a calculation of the variation in size of RBCs
Red cell distribution width
Typical hematocrit value for erythrocytes in females
Typical hematocrit value for erythrocytes in males
Typical hematocrit value for leukocytes and platelets (buffy coat)
Typical hematocrit value for plasma
plasma from which clotting factors have been removed
main protein constituent; smallest protein; synthesized in the liver; acts as a carrier protein
albumin is the main protein component that functions to maintain the ..., if this decreases fluid accumulates in tissues
plasma protein also known as antibodies
plasma protein that is secreted by the liver and help maintain osmotic pressure, also serve as carrier proteins
largest plasma protein; synthesized in the liver
fibrinogen is transformed to fibrin in
RBC's swell in hypotonic solutions and can burst leading to
RBC's shrink in hypertonic solutions assuming a ... appearance
Erythrocytes tend to stack into columns called ...
What usually causes erythrocytes to stack into rouleaux?
increased levels of immunoglobulins in the blood
What attaches the underlying cytoskeleton to the cell membrane in RBCs?
What binds hemoglobin and also anchors the cytoskeleton?
band 3 protein
Reside on the inner surface of the RBC cell membrane forming a 2-D hexagonal lattice network that contains spectrum, actin, band 4.1 protein, adducin, band 4.9 protein and tropomyosin.
peripheral membrane proteins
Hereditary spherocytosis is caused by an abnormal arrangement of the internal cytoskeleton due to a missing or abnormal ...
spectrin or ankyrin molecule
most common in adults; 96% of total hemoglobin; consists of 2 alpha and 2 beta chains
1.5%-3% of total hemoglobin in adults; consists of 2 alpha and 2 delta chains
fetal hemoglobin; production decreases after birth but has a higher percentage in sickle cell anemia and thalassemia; consists of 2alpha and 2 gamma chains
Sickle cell anemia is caused by a point mutation in the DNA encoding the ...
beta-chain of hemoglobin
The mutation associated with sickle cell anemia is due to what two amino acids being switched?
glutamic acid is replaced with valine
decrease in cell size
increase in cell size
variability in cell size
bluish tint to the cell due to a few ribosomes in young RBC's
> 1/3 central pallor
2 distinct populations of cells
hypochromic, microcytic anemia
Iron deficiency anemia
change in shape
A fragment of an erythrocyte; does not have central pallor; "helmet cells"
Schistocytes are formed when RBC's are ...
sheared passing through fibrin clots
These cells are characterized by increased red cell surface area or else a decreased intracellular hemoglobin content
Leukocytes or WBCs are involved in the body's defense against invading/foreign material; they regularly leave the blood to carry out their functions in the ...
WBC's exit the blood by squeezing between endothelial cells, a process known as
Group of WBC containing two types of granules, specific and azurophilic
Granulocytes (segmented cells)
Group of WBC containing one type of granule, azurophilic
Agranulocytes (mononuclear cells)
Most abundant of the granular leukocytes; multilocular (segmented) nucleus with highly condensed chromatin; in females a Barr body is present; contains 3 types of granules
Neutrophil granule that is lysosomal in character, containing lysosomal enzymes, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, and lactoferrin
Primary or Type A azurophilic granules
Neutrophil granule that contains enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, collagenase), antimicrobial peptides (lysozyme and phagocytins), and complement activators
Secondary or type B specific granules
Neutrophil granule that has 2 types one containing phosphates (phosphasomes) and the other containing metalloproteinses (collagenases)
What may help facilitate migration of neutrophils through the connective tissue
The migration of neutrophils is controlled by the expression of ... expressed on the surface that interact with ligands on endothelial cells
Are actively phagocytic and function as the first line of defense against bacterial infection
Binding of bacterial antigens to PMN receptors also induces the release of ... such as IL-1, IL-3, and TNF-alpha
IL-1 is also known as
pyrogen released from PMN induces the synthesis of
Prostaglandins act on thermoregulatory centers in the hypothalamus to ...
increase body temperature i.e. fever
Neutrophils release Neutrophils release ... which promotes the adhesion of PMNs to endothelium and their migration into tissues among other functions such as being a potent vasoconstrictor.
Leukotrienes act as chemoattractants for other leukocytes such as ...
eosinophils and monocytes
leukotrienes increase the permeability of post-capillary venues which contribute to ...
swelling at the site of injury/infection
Neutrophils die after ingesting bacteria; dead neutrophils contribute to the formation of ... at the site of the infection
Eosinophils moderate inflammatory reactions; phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes; modulate the functions of ...
mast cells and basophils
Individuals with allergies and parasitic infections have an increased percentage of ... in blood
Eosinophils have specific granules that contain several lysosomal hydrolyses, and 4 cationic proteins; these function to kill ...
protozoans and parasites
Specific eosinophil granules also contain ... that functions to degrade histamine (thereby modulating the functions of basophils and mast cells in allergic reactions)
What specific granule of basophils has the function of: an anticoagulant
What specific granule of basophils has the function of: increases permeability of small blood vessels
What specific granule of basophils has the function of: dilating small blood vessels
What specific granule of basophils has the function of: modified lipids that cause constriction of smooth muscle in pulmonary airways I1-4 and IL-3 -> promote synthesis of IgE
Plasma membrane of basophils contain receptors for the ... antibody (important for hypersensitive, allergic reactions); degranulate when this is bound
Mast cells and basophils come from the same progenitor cell ...
BMCP differentiates into a basophil if it ...
expresses a specific transcription factor C/EMPalpha
If the transcription factor C/EMPalpha is not expressed, the BMCP migrates to the ... to become a mast cell precursor
MCP matures into a mast cell in the ...
Major function cells of the lymphatic system; principle agents of the body's immune response; consists of 3 major functional classes: T, B, and NK
Largest of the circulating WBC's
monocytes migrate from blood into connective tissue where they differentiate into ...
Macrophages that differentiate from monocytes make up the ...
mononuclear phagocyte system
Thrombocytes (platelets) are produced from
peripheral region of thrombocytes
central region of thrombocytes
What platelet granule is most numerous; important for the initial phase of vessel repair, blood coagulation and platelet aggregation; contain fibrinogen, coagulation factors, plasminogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and PDGF?
What platelet granules facilitate platelet adhesion and vasoconstriction in the injured area of the blood vessel; contain Ca, serotonin, pyrophosphate, ADP, ATP, and histamine?
What platelet granules contain lysosomal hydrolases?
What platelet membrane channel is from the invaginations of the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm; may be pathways for the uptake of solutes and the discharge of secretory products
Open Cannaliculi system
What platelet membrane channel originates from the rER of megakaryocytes; concentrates Ca and synthesizes prostaglandins
Dense Tubular System (DTS)
(Clot Retraction) The clot contracts and condenses through the interactions of ... and the platelet's actin and myosin filaments. Blood flow through the vessel resumes.
(Clot Dissolution) when the vessel wall heals, the clot is removed by the enzyme ... and by enzymes (hydrolyses) released by the platelets' gamma granules
Platelets are formed by the separation of cytoplasmic fragments through the fusion of ...
Platelet Demarcation Channels (PDCs)
The activator that converts the proenzyme, plasminogen to plasma is known as ...
TPA (tissue plasminogen activator)
TPA is released by what cells?
A synthetic form of TPA is used clinically as treatment for ...
platelets originate as portions of the cytoplasm of ...