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Flashcards in Blood and Blood Development Deck (97):
1

Makes up 55% of the total blood volume

plasma

2

What percentage of plasma is water?

90%

3

What percentage of plasma is proteins?

7%

4

Albumin is a major protein component that functions to maintain the ...

osmotic pressure of blood

5

What percentage of plasma is amino acids, glucose, hormones, and other regulatory substances?

2.1%

6

What percentage of plasma is inorganic salts?

0.9%

7

A measurement of the average size of RBCs

mean corpuscular volume

8

is a calculation of the average amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin inside a RBC

mean corpuscular hemoglobin

9

is a calculation of the average percentage of hemoglobin inside a RBC

mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

10

is a calculation of the variation in size of RBCs

Red cell distribution width

11

Typical hematocrit value for erythrocytes in females

35%-45%

12

Typical hematocrit value for erythrocytes in males

39%-50%

13

Typical hematocrit value for leukocytes and platelets (buffy coat)

1%

14

Typical hematocrit value for plasma

55%

15

plasma from which clotting factors have been removed

serum

16

main protein constituent; smallest protein; synthesized in the liver; acts as a carrier protein

albumin

17

albumin is the main protein component that functions to maintain the ..., if this decreases fluid accumulates in tissues

BCOP

18

plasma protein also known as antibodies

immunoglobulins

19

plasma protein that is secreted by the liver and help maintain osmotic pressure, also serve as carrier proteins

non-immune globulins

20

largest plasma protein; synthesized in the liver

fibrinogen

21

fibrinogen is transformed to fibrin in

coagulation

22

RBC's swell in hypotonic solutions and can burst leading to

hemolysis

23

RBC's shrink in hypertonic solutions assuming a ... appearance

crenated

24

Erythrocytes tend to stack into columns called ...

rouleaux

25

What usually causes erythrocytes to stack into rouleaux?

increased levels of immunoglobulins in the blood

26

What attaches the underlying cytoskeleton to the cell membrane in RBCs?

glycophorin C

27

What binds hemoglobin and also anchors the cytoskeleton?

band 3 protein

28

Reside on the inner surface of the RBC cell membrane forming a 2-D hexagonal lattice network that contains spectrum, actin, band 4.1 protein, adducin, band 4.9 protein and tropomyosin.

peripheral membrane proteins

29

Hereditary spherocytosis is caused by an abnormal arrangement of the internal cytoskeleton due to a missing or abnormal ...

spectrin or ankyrin molecule

30

most common in adults; 96% of total hemoglobin; consists of 2 alpha and 2 beta chains

HbA

31

1.5%-3% of total hemoglobin in adults; consists of 2 alpha and 2 delta chains

HbA_2

32

fetal hemoglobin; production decreases after birth but has a higher percentage in sickle cell anemia and thalassemia; consists of 2alpha and 2 gamma chains

HbF

33

Sickle cell anemia is caused by a point mutation in the DNA encoding the ...

beta-chain of hemoglobin

34

The mutation associated with sickle cell anemia is due to what two amino acids being switched?

glutamic acid is replaced with valine

35

decrease in cell size

microcytosis

36

increase in cell size

macrocytosis

37

variability in cell size

anisocytosis

38

bluish tint to the cell due to a few ribosomes in young RBC's

polychromasia

39

> 1/3 central pallor

hypochromasia

40

2 distinct populations of cells

dimorphism

41

hypochromic, microcytic anemia

Iron deficiency anemia

42

change in shape

poikilocytosis

43

A fragment of an erythrocyte; does not have central pallor; "helmet cells"

Schistocytes (shizocytes)

44

Schistocytes are formed when RBC's are ...

sheared passing through fibrin clots

45

These cells are characterized by increased red cell surface area or else a decreased intracellular hemoglobin content

target cells

46

Leukocytes or WBCs are involved in the body's defense against invading/foreign material; they regularly leave the blood to carry out their functions in the ...

connective tissue

47

WBC's exit the blood by squeezing between endothelial cells, a process known as

diapedesis

48

Group of WBC containing two types of granules, specific and azurophilic

Granulocytes (segmented cells)

49

Group of WBC containing one type of granule, azurophilic

Agranulocytes (mononuclear cells)

50

Most abundant of the granular leukocytes; multilocular (segmented) nucleus with highly condensed chromatin; in females a Barr body is present; contains 3 types of granules

Neutrophils (PMNs)

51

Neutrophil granule that is lysosomal in character, containing lysosomal enzymes, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, and lactoferrin

Primary or Type A azurophilic granules

52

Neutrophil granule that contains enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, collagenase), antimicrobial peptides (lysozyme and phagocytins), and complement activators

Secondary or type B specific granules

53

Neutrophil granule that has 2 types one containing phosphates (phosphasomes) and the other containing metalloproteinses (collagenases)

Tertiary granules

54

What may help facilitate migration of neutrophils through the connective tissue

collagenases

55

The migration of neutrophils is controlled by the expression of ... expressed on the surface that interact with ligands on endothelial cells

adhesion molecules

56

Are actively phagocytic and function as the first line of defense against bacterial infection

neutrophils

57

Binding of bacterial antigens to PMN receptors also induces the release of ... such as IL-1, IL-3, and TNF-alpha

cytokines

58

IL-1 is also known as

pyrogen

59

pyrogen released from PMN induces the synthesis of

prostaglandins

60

Prostaglandins act on thermoregulatory centers in the hypothalamus to ...

increase body temperature i.e. fever

61

Neutrophils release Neutrophils release ... which promotes the adhesion of PMNs to endothelium and their migration into tissues among other functions such as being a potent vasoconstrictor.

leukotrienes

62

Leukotrienes act as chemoattractants for other leukocytes such as ...

eosinophils and monocytes

63

leukotrienes increase the permeability of post-capillary venues which contribute to ...

swelling at the site of injury/infection

64

Neutrophils die after ingesting bacteria; dead neutrophils contribute to the formation of ... at the site of the infection

pus

65

Eosinophils moderate inflammatory reactions; phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes; modulate the functions of ...

mast cells and basophils

66

Individuals with allergies and parasitic infections have an increased percentage of ... in blood

eosinophils

67

Eosinophils have specific granules that contain several lysosomal hydrolyses, and 4 cationic proteins; these function to kill ...

protozoans and parasites

68

Specific eosinophil granules also contain ... that functions to degrade histamine (thereby modulating the functions of basophils and mast cells in allergic reactions)

histaminase

69

What specific granule of basophils has the function of: an anticoagulant

heparin

70

What specific granule of basophils has the function of: increases permeability of small blood vessels

histamine

71

What specific granule of basophils has the function of: dilating small blood vessels

heparin sulfate

72

What specific granule of basophils has the function of: modified lipids that cause constriction of smooth muscle in pulmonary airways I1-4 and IL-3 -> promote synthesis of IgE

leukotrienes

73

Plasma membrane of basophils contain receptors for the ... antibody (important for hypersensitive, allergic reactions); degranulate when this is bound

IgE

74

Mast cells and basophils come from the same progenitor cell ...

BMCP

75

BMCP differentiates into a basophil if it ...

expresses a specific transcription factor C/EMPalpha

76

If the transcription factor C/EMPalpha is not expressed, the BMCP migrates to the ... to become a mast cell precursor

spleen

77

MCP matures into a mast cell in the ...

intestine

78

Major function cells of the lymphatic system; principle agents of the body's immune response; consists of 3 major functional classes: T, B, and NK

lymphocytes

79

Largest of the circulating WBC's

monocytes

80

monocytes migrate from blood into connective tissue where they differentiate into ...

macrophages

81

Macrophages that differentiate from monocytes make up the ...

mononuclear phagocyte system

82

Thrombocytes (platelets) are produced from

megakaryocytes

83

peripheral region of thrombocytes

hyalomere

84

central region of thrombocytes

granulomere

85

What platelet granule is most numerous; important for the initial phase of vessel repair, blood coagulation and platelet aggregation; contain fibrinogen, coagulation factors, plasminogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and PDGF?

alpha granules

86

What platelet granules facilitate platelet adhesion and vasoconstriction in the injured area of the blood vessel; contain Ca, serotonin, pyrophosphate, ADP, ATP, and histamine?

delta granules

87

What platelet granules contain lysosomal hydrolases?

gamma granules

88

What platelet membrane channel is from the invaginations of the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm; may be pathways for the uptake of solutes and the discharge of secretory products

Open Cannaliculi system

89

What platelet membrane channel originates from the rER of megakaryocytes; concentrates Ca and synthesizes prostaglandins

Dense Tubular System (DTS)

90

(Clot Retraction) The clot contracts and condenses through the interactions of ... and the platelet's actin and myosin filaments. Blood flow through the vessel resumes.

thrombosthenin

91

(Clot Dissolution) when the vessel wall heals, the clot is removed by the enzyme ... and by enzymes (hydrolyses) released by the platelets' gamma granules

plasmin

92

Platelets are formed by the separation of cytoplasmic fragments through the fusion of ...

Platelet Demarcation Channels (PDCs)

93

The activator that converts the proenzyme, plasminogen to plasma is known as ...

TPA (tissue plasminogen activator)

94

TPA is released by what cells?

endothelial

95

A synthetic form of TPA is used clinically as treatment for ...

stroke victims

96

platelets originate as portions of the cytoplasm of ...

megakaryocytes

97

The plasma membrane of megakaryocytes has many invaginations form channels called...

platelet demarcation channels (PDC)