Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Histology > Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (121):
1

What % of CO do the kidneys receive?

25%

2

The kidneys regulate BP via ... production

renin

3

The kidneys produce and secrete ... which stimulates production of RBCs

erythropoietin

4

The kidneys control calcium metabolism by activating ..., a vitamin D derivative.

1,25-hydroxycholecalciferol

5

concave portion of the kidney, where the renal artery and renal vein and nerves pass

hilum

6

the hilum contains the ..., which is the funnel-shaped origin of the ureter

renal pelvis

7

The space within the hilum, filled with loose connective and adipose tissue

renal sinus

8

Outer, reddish area which receives ~90% - 95% of the blood passing through the kidney

cortex

9

lighter-colored inner part of kidney

medulla

10

Has renal corpuscles and associated tubules of the nephron

cortical labyrinth

11

vertical striations in the cortex containing straight tubules of the nephron and collecting ducts

medullary rays

12

are similar in composition to cortical tissue (renal corpuscles and associated tubules but NO medullary rays); are considered part of the medulla

renal columns

13

formed from the arrangement of tubules in the medulla

medullary pyramids

14

the base of the medullary pyramid is found at the

cortico-medullary junction

15

the sides of the medullary pyramids consist of

half of the renal columns

16

the apical portion of the medullary pyramids is known as the ...

papilla

17

The tip of the papilla is known as the

area cribosa

18

The papilla projects into a

minor calyx (which is a branch of the major calyx)

19

The calices are an extension of the

renal pelvis

20

medullary (renal) pyramid and the cortical tissue at its base and sides (one half of each renal column)

lobe

21

the number of lobes in a kidney equals the number of

medullary pyramids

22

Each lobe is subdivided into multiple

lobules

23

What consists of a medullary ray located in the center and the surrounding cortical material?

lobule

24

A lobule represents a renal ...

secretory unit

25

What consists of a collecting duct and a group of nephrons that drain into that duct?

renal secretory unit

26

make up 1/8 of all nephrons; the renal corpuscle is close to the base of the medullary pyramid; have long loops of Henle; important for urine concentration

juxtamedullary nephrons

27

Renal corpuscle is located in the outer part of the cortex; have short loops of Henle; majority of nephrons in the kidney

Cortical nephrons

28

The nephron consists of the ... and its tubule system

renal corpuscle

29

Consists of a tuft of capillaries known as the glomerulus surrounded by Bowman's capsule

Renal corpuscle

30

What connects to the collecting tubule and duct

distal convoluted tubule

31

One nephron and its collecting duct form the

uriniferous tubule

32

What is in the cortex (cortical labyrinth)?

1. renal corpuscle
2. proximal and distal convoluted tubules
3. collecting tubules

33

What is in the medullary ray?

1. straight tubules of the nephron
2. collecting ducts

34

What is in the outer medulla-outer stripe?

1. proximal and distal straight tubules
2. collecting ducts

35

What is in the outer medulla-inner stripe?

1. thin segment of Henle's loop
2. distal straight tubules
3. collecting ducts

36

What is in the inner medulla?

1. thin segment of Henle's loop
2. collecting ducts

37

Where the afferent and efferent arterioles enter and leave the renal corpuscle

vascular pole

38

Where the glomerular ultra filtrate enters the proximal convoluted tubule

urinary pole

39

simple squamous epithelium that lines Bowman's space

parietal layer of Bowman's capsule

40

Contains specialized cells called podocytes that extend processes around the glomerular capillaries

visceral layer

41

receptacle for the ultra filtrate

Bowman's (urinary) space

42

Has numerous fenestrations, but lacks a diaphragm. Have a large number of aquaporins and have a thick, negatively charged glycocalyx

Glomerular Capillary Endothelium

43

Produced by both endothelial cells and the podocytes

Glomerular Basement Membrane

44

Acts as a physical barrier and an ion selective filter (repels anions and restricts the movement of cationic molecules)

Glomerular Basement Membrane

45

What layer of the Glomerular Basement Membrane is adjacent to podocyte processes, rich in negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (for example, heparin sulfate), repels negatively charged molecules

lamina rara external

46

What layer of the Glomerular Basement Membrane is adjacent to capillary endothelium, and has similar features to the l. rara externa

lamina rara interna

47

What layer of the Glomerular Basement Membrane is an overlapping of the lamina rara external and interna, made up of type IV collagen that forms a network; acts as a physical barrier

lamina densa

48

podocytes of the visceral layer of Bowman's Capsule are coated with ... which is negatively charged (also acts as a charge barrier)

podocalyxin

49

podocytes extend processes that surround the capillaries, these processes develop numerous secondary processes called ...

pedicels or foot processes

50

The spaces between the interdigitating foot processes are the ... and are covered by an ultra thin ...

filtration slits; filtration slit diaphragm (acts as a true size-selective physical barrier)

51

The filtration slit diaphragm is a modified ...

adherens junction

52

a transmembrane protein that is an important component of the diaphragm (interdigitate with each other forming a "zipper")

nephrin

53

Refers to the mesangial cells and their extracellular matrix occupying the region between glomerular capillaries; they are most evident at the vascular pole

mesangium

54

The primary function of the mesangial cells is to maintain the structure and function of the ...

glomerular barrier

55

Phagocytes derived from smooth muscle cells

mesangial cells

56

A function of the mesangial cells; remove trapped molecules and renew the basal lamina

phagocytosis

57

A function of the mesangial cells; removal of plasma proteins

endocytosis

58

A function of the mesangial cells; produce components of the mesangial matrix

structural support

59

A function of the mesangial cells; regulates glomerular dissension in response to high BP

Contraction

60

A function of the mesangial cells; these molecules are important factors in responding to glomerular injury

Secretion: IL-1, PDGF

61

located at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle; regulates BP, sodium homeostasis and renal dynamics by activating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

62

Includes the following cells: macula dense, juxtaglomerular cells (JG cells), Lacis cells

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

63

Cells of the distal straight tubule located at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle at the junction of ht distal straight tubule with the distal convoluted tubule

macula dense cells

64

Macula dense cells are ... cells that control renal blood flow, glomerular filtration and renin release

salt-sensors

65

What mediators are released from macula dense cells?

ATP, NO, prostaglandins

66

Mediators released from macula dense cells stimulate Juxtaglomerular cells to secrete ...

renin

67

Are modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole; have rounded nuclei and secretory granules that contain the protease renin

Juxtaglomerular cells

68

Released renin from JG cells converts circulating ... to ...

angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

69

Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II in the ...

lung

70

Angiotensin II stimulates the release of ... from the adrenal medulla

aldosterone

71

Aldosterone acts on kidney tubule cells to increase ...

Na+ and water reabsorption -> BV and BP are increased

72

Extraglomerular mesangial cells (lacis cells) connect with each other via ...

gap junctions

73

Receives ultra filtrate from Bowman's capsule; is the initial and major site of reabsorption (65-70% of water, glucose, Na, Cl, K, and other solutes are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate)

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

74

What type of cells make up the PCT?

cuboidal

75

Ultrastructure of PCT Cells - Packed microvilli corresponding to the brush border seen with the LM; well developed glycocalyx that traps and digests small peptides and disaccharides; tight junctions

apical surface

76

Ultrastructure of PCT Cells - vesicles and lysosomes; proteins are endocytosed by PCT cells and endocytosed proteins are degraded in lysosomes

apical cytoplasm

77

Ultrastructure of PCT Cells - contain Na/K-ATPase pumps responsible for Na reabsorption; water follows by osmosis. The membrane also contains the transmembrane water channel, AQP-1

Lateral folds

78

Ultrastructure of PCT Cells - mitochondria; bundles of actin filaments to regulate the movement of fluid from the basolateral extracellular space toward the peritubular capillaries

basal portion

79

What is the size of the DCT in comparison to the PCT?

~1/3 as long as the PCT

80

epithelia cells of DCT are shorted than those of the PCT and lack a ...

prominent brush border

81

DCT is impermeable to water unless what is present?

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

82

DCT cells are not actively engaged in endocytosis as in the PCT therefore there are no prominent ...

apical vesicles

83

PST is permeable to

water

84

What is the epithelium of the Thin Segment of Henle's Loop

simple squamous epithelium

85

What portion of the Thin Segment of Henle's Loop is highly permeable to NaCl -> passive diffusion of NaCl into the interstitium?

ascending limb

86

What portion of the Thin Segment of Henle's loop is highly impermeable to water -> tubular fluid becomes hyposmotic with respect to plasma?

ascending limb

87

Ultra filtrate from the PT that enters the thin descending limb of the Thin Segment of Henle's loop is ...

isosmotic related to plasma

88

The medullary interstitium becomes ... due to the transport activity of the loop of Henle

hyperosmotic

89

The Distal Straight Tubule (DS) is the same as the ...

ascending thick limb of Henle's loop

90

In what do the cells have electroneutral transporters (synporters) that allow Cl, Na, and K to enter the cell from the lumen

Distal Straight Tubule

91

Na is actively transported out of the cell at the basolateral surface of ..., result is the transport of ions from the tubular ultra filtrate to the interstitium.

Distal Straight Tubule

92

Is impermeable to water -> separation of water from its solutes occurs here?

Distal Straight Tubule

93

'horizontal tubules' in cortical labyrinth that connect DCT to collecting ducts

collecting tubules

94

What part of the collecting tubules and ducts is found in the medullary ray?

cortical collecting duct

95

What part of the collecting tubules and ducts is found in the medulla?

medullary collecting duct

96

What part of the collecting tubules and ducts is found at the medullary apex and empty into the minor calyx at the area cribosa?

papillary duct (of Bellini)

97

Which of the 2 types of cells in the collecting ducts is called the collecting duct cells, CD cells?

light or principle cells

98

Light or principle cells have abundant ... regulated water channels responsible for the water permeability of the collecting duct?

ADH

99

What cells of the collecting ducts secrete H+ or bicarb depending on whether the kidney needs to excrete excess acid or alkali?

dark or intercalated cells (IC cells)

100

What cells of the cortical interstitium produce EPO and extracellular matrix components?

fibroblasts

101

What is the major cell of the medullary interstitium?

myofibroblast

102

Oriented to the long axis of the tubules suggesting they function to compress the structures. They also contain abundant actin filaments and secrete prostaglandins.

myofibroblasts

103

Each kidney receives a branch of the abdominal aorta known as the renal artery, which branches in the renal sinus into ...

segmental arteries

104

In the kidney segmental arteries branch into the ... that travel between the pyramids up to the cortex

interlobar

105

At the base of the medullary pyramid the interloper arteries arch and course along the base of the pyramid as the ...

arcuate arteries

106

The arcuate arteries send branches, the ..., into the cortex

interlobular arteries

107

Interlobular arteries branch to form ... - one to each glomerulus to supply the capillaries of the glomerulus

afferent arterioles

108

Glomeruli capillaries form the ...

efferent arteriole

109

Efferent arterioles from the cortical nephrons lead into the ...

peritubular capillaries

110

Efferent arterioles from the juxtamedullary nephrons descend into the medulla(follow loop of Henle) to form the ...

vasa recta

111

What countercurrent system is associated with the Loop of Henle, responsible for producing a hyperosmotic/concentrated urine?

Countercurrent Multiplier System

112

What countercurrent system is associated with the Vasa recta, maintains the osmotic gradient of the medulla?

Countercurrent Exchange System

113

What part of the Loop of Henle is permeable to water and relatively impermeable to solutes?

Descending limb

114

What part of the Loop of Henle is impermeable to water and permeable to solutes?

Ascending limb

115

In the production of a concentrated urine, ADH acts on terminal portion of ... and the ... to increase permeability to water via water channels (aquaporin 2)

DCT and the collecting ducts

116

Conduct urine from the pelvis to the bladder; lined with transitional epithelium

ureters

117

What is the adventitia of the ureters?

adipose tissue, vessels and nerves

118

What is the smooth muscle of the bladder wall?

detrusor muscle

119

Parasympathetic fibers from the spinal cord segments S2 to S4 innervate the muscle bundles of the bladder and form the efferent fibers of the ...

micturition reflex

120

What is the epithelium of the female urethra?

transitional to stratified squamous

121

Paraurethral glands of the female urethra produce an ...

alkaline secretion