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Histology > Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (56):
1

The respiratory system develops from the ...

evagination of the foregut

2

What is the epithelium lining the conducting portions "respiratory epithelium" of the respiratory system?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

3

What is the epithelium lining the respiratory portion of the respiratory system?

combo of simple cuboidal and squamous epithelium

4

The intrapulmonary parts of the respiratory system are held open by ...

negative pressure

5

Axons of olfactory cells pass through the ... to innervate the olfactory bulb.

cribiform plate

6

The nasal cavities communicate with the pharynx via the ...

choanae

7

what cells, with small microvilli are thought to transmit sensory signals via the trigeminal nerve (may initiate sneeze reflex)

Brush cells

8

Stem cells that can replace the other cell types

basal cells

9

Particles are entrapped by the secretions of goblet cells in the ...

epithelium

10

Particles are entrapped by mixed mucus/serus glands in the ...

lamina proper

11

A dark line at the surface of respiratory epithelium results from the alignment of the ...

basal bodies

12

Adjacent cells are attached via ...

zonula occludes and macula adherens

13

In the cell apex are the U-shaped basal bodies that serve as the source of, and anchoring sites for ...

cilia

14

The secretions of the mixed glands and the goblet cells form a ... on the top of the epithelial surface; components of which form a "mucociliary escalator"

biphase layer

15

What epithelium is also a pseudostratified columnar epithelium but is distinct from the respiratory epithelium in that it contains no goblet cells?

olfactory epithelium

16

Bipolar neurons that innervate the olfactory bulb of the brain

olfactory cells

17

Olfactory cells have modified cilia that express receptors for ...

various odorants

18

olfactory cells (bipolar neurons) are surrounded by ... that provide mechanical and metabolic support.

sustentacular cells

19

The lamina propria contains ... that produce serous secretions that flush the epithelium so olfactory stimuli are washed away. This ensures that no new odors can be detected.

Bowman's glands

20

When an AP is generated and travels in the olfactory nerves, through the cribriform plate, and innervates the olfactory bulb. There the nerves synapse in a complicated structure known as the ...

olfactory glomerulus

21

Within the olfactory glomerulus the odor signal is transferred to the ... which send axons to other regions of the brain.

mitral cells

22

Epithelium of the nasopharynx is similar to what?

respiratory - pseudostratified columnar

23

What is the epithelium of the oropharynx and laryngopharynx?

stratified squamous

24

What glands of the lamina propria are in the nasopharynx?

seromucus glands

25

What glands of the lamina propria are in the oropharynx and laryngopharynx?

muscus glands

26

Epiglottis is a flap of tissue that covers the ... during swallowing

larynx

27

What two cartilages surround the larynx?

thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage

28

true vocal cords

vocal folds

29

fasle vocal cords

ventricular folds

30

Space between the vocal folds and ventricular folds?

ventricle

31

Above the ventricular folds is the ...

vestibule

32

the ... as well as the nasal cavity contributes to resonance.

vestibule

33

Trachea epithelium is ...

"respiratory epithelium" - pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells

34

The submucosa of the trachea contains what kind of glands?

mixed serous mucus glands

35

In the trachea mucus acini can contain ... that help move mucus from the gland

serus demilunes

36

The C-shaped cartilage of the trachea is joined by the ..., this allows flexibility at the junction with the esophagus which is bound by it as well.

trachealis muscle

37

Contraction of smooth muscle in the bronchi induces ...

folding of the mucosa

38

The pulmonary arteries have a thin ..., much like that of a vein.

tunica media

39

Bronchioles are similar to bronchi except they have no ... and no ..., and only the largest bronchioles have ...

No glands and no cartilage; goblet cells

40

The smallest conducting bronchiole

terminal bronchiole

41

terminal bronchiole leads to ... which are passageways to alveoli

respiratory bronchioles

42

Divide and differentiate to form both ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells

Clara cells

43

What 2 things to Clara cells secrete?

lipoprotein and Clara cell protein (CC16)

44

Useful marker of lung damage (decreased levels in lung due to ... damage, increased levels in blood due to leakage across blood-air barrier).

Clara cell protein; Clara cell damage

45

Clara cells show basal ... and apical ...

rER; secretory granules

46

Clara cells also have ... in their apex. This is important in detoxifying inhaled substances.

sER

47

Endothelial cells of lung capillaries produce ..., which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor.

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE)

48

Type II pneumocytes contain ...

lamella bodies

49

Hyperplasia of Type II cells is a marker of

alveolar injury

50

accounts for most surface-tension reducing properties

DPPC

51

Surfactant synthesis is modulated at 35 weeks of gestation by (4 things)

cortisol, insulin, prolactin, thyroxine

52

Respiratory system changes due to smoking: basement membrane of trachea becomes ...

thicker

53

Respiratory system changes due to smoking: what affect does it have on goblet cells?

increase the number and they produce more muscus

54

Respiratory system changes due to smoking: on cilia

lose synchronous beating pattern; ciliated cells lose cilia; both impairing muscus removal

55

Respiratory system changes due to smoking: loss of olfactory neurons causes ...

decreased ability to detect odors

56

Respiratory system changes due to smoking: ciliated cells replaced with ...

stratified squamous cells