Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (56):
The respiratory system develops from the ...
evagination of the foregut
What is the epithelium lining the conducting portions "respiratory epithelium" of the respiratory system?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells
What is the epithelium lining the respiratory portion of the respiratory system?
combo of simple cuboidal and squamous epithelium
The intrapulmonary parts of the respiratory system are held open by ...
Axons of olfactory cells pass through the ... to innervate the olfactory bulb.
The nasal cavities communicate with the pharynx via the ...
what cells, with small microvilli are thought to transmit sensory signals via the trigeminal nerve (may initiate sneeze reflex)
Stem cells that can replace the other cell types
Particles are entrapped by the secretions of goblet cells in the ...
Particles are entrapped by mixed mucus/serus glands in the ...
A dark line at the surface of respiratory epithelium results from the alignment of the ...
Adjacent cells are attached via ...
zonula occludes and macula adherens
In the cell apex are the U-shaped basal bodies that serve as the source of, and anchoring sites for ...
The secretions of the mixed glands and the goblet cells form a ... on the top of the epithelial surface; components of which form a "mucociliary escalator"
What epithelium is also a pseudostratified columnar epithelium but is distinct from the respiratory epithelium in that it contains no goblet cells?
Bipolar neurons that innervate the olfactory bulb of the brain
Olfactory cells have modified cilia that express receptors for ...
olfactory cells (bipolar neurons) are surrounded by ... that provide mechanical and metabolic support.
The lamina propria contains ... that produce serous secretions that flush the epithelium so olfactory stimuli are washed away. This ensures that no new odors can be detected.
When an AP is generated and travels in the olfactory nerves, through the cribriform plate, and innervates the olfactory bulb. There the nerves synapse in a complicated structure known as the ...
Within the olfactory glomerulus the odor signal is transferred to the ... which send axons to other regions of the brain.
Epithelium of the nasopharynx is similar to what?
respiratory - pseudostratified columnar
What is the epithelium of the oropharynx and laryngopharynx?
What glands of the lamina propria are in the nasopharynx?
What glands of the lamina propria are in the oropharynx and laryngopharynx?
Epiglottis is a flap of tissue that covers the ... during swallowing
What two cartilages surround the larynx?
thyroid cartilage and cricoid cartilage
true vocal cords
fasle vocal cords
Space between the vocal folds and ventricular folds?
Above the ventricular folds is the ...
the ... as well as the nasal cavity contributes to resonance.
Trachea epithelium is ...
"respiratory epithelium" - pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells
The submucosa of the trachea contains what kind of glands?
mixed serous mucus glands
In the trachea mucus acini can contain ... that help move mucus from the gland
The C-shaped cartilage of the trachea is joined by the ..., this allows flexibility at the junction with the esophagus which is bound by it as well.
Contraction of smooth muscle in the bronchi induces ...
folding of the mucosa
The pulmonary arteries have a thin ..., much like that of a vein.
Bronchioles are similar to bronchi except they have no ... and no ..., and only the largest bronchioles have ...
No glands and no cartilage; goblet cells
The smallest conducting bronchiole
terminal bronchiole leads to ... which are passageways to alveoli
Divide and differentiate to form both ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells
What 2 things to Clara cells secrete?
lipoprotein and Clara cell protein (CC16)
Useful marker of lung damage (decreased levels in lung due to ... damage, increased levels in blood due to leakage across blood-air barrier).
Clara cell protein; Clara cell damage
Clara cells show basal ... and apical ...
rER; secretory granules
Clara cells also have ... in their apex. This is important in detoxifying inhaled substances.
Endothelial cells of lung capillaries produce ..., which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor.
Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE)
Type II pneumocytes contain ...
Hyperplasia of Type II cells is a marker of
accounts for most surface-tension reducing properties
Surfactant synthesis is modulated at 35 weeks of gestation by (4 things)
cortisol, insulin, prolactin, thyroxine
Respiratory system changes due to smoking: basement membrane of trachea becomes ...
Respiratory system changes due to smoking: what affect does it have on goblet cells?
increase the number and they produce more muscus
Respiratory system changes due to smoking: on cilia
lose synchronous beating pattern; ciliated cells lose cilia; both impairing muscus removal
Respiratory system changes due to smoking: loss of olfactory neurons causes ...
decreased ability to detect odors