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Advanced Human Physiology > Blood and Blood typing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood and Blood typing Deck (39):
1

The process of RBC destruction is

  1. Spleen and liver remove dead RBCs
  2. Salvage iron and protein
  3. Remainder becomes bilirubin
  4. Liver incorporates bilirubin into bile
  5. Secreted into intestine
  6. Some lost with feces

2

Dietary factors for RBC production

  • Folic acid for cell division
  • Vitamin B12 for erythrocyte maturation factor
  • Iron for hemoglobin formation
  • Protein for globin subunits

3

Stimulators of RBC production

  • Occurs in bone marrow
  • Stimulated by eryhropoeitin excreted from kidneys
  • Arterial hypoxia (lung disease or high altitudes)
  • Testosterone

4

RBC physical facts

  • Biconcave, anucleated cell
  • 7.2 micrometers in diameter

5

Functions of the RBC

  • Transports: Nutrients, Respiratory gasses, waste, and hormones
  • Regulates: Body temperature and pH
  • Protection: clot formation
    • Nonspecific immunity: macrophages, natural killer cells
    • Specific immunity: B and T lymphocytes

6

Define blood

  • Opaque red liquid connective tissue containing formed elements suspended in fluid plasma
  • 90-95% of blood is water

7

What is anemia?

  • An abnormally low O2 carrying capacity of blood 
    • less than 16ml O2/dl of blood

8

Anemia can be caused by

  • Decreased number of RBCs
  • Decreased Hb content
  • Decreased Hb and RBCs

9

Thalassemia is

  • a genetic disorder which causes abnormal formation of hemoglobin leading to anemia

10

Pernicious anemia is

  • an autoimmune disease where antibodies attack parietal cells of the gastric glands that produce intrinsic factor preventing absorption of vitamin B12
  • Or: a lack of B12 
  • Result: RBCs don't mature properly and are macrocytic, hyperchroic, and nucleated

11

Iron-deficiency anemia

  • Cause: lack of iron, decreased Hb production
  • Result: macrocytic, hypochromic

12

Aplastic anemia

  • aka normocytic/ normochromic anemia
  • Cause: cytotoxic drugs, radiation, arsenic, DDT, benzene, genetic failure, or blood loss
  • Results: reduced RBC count, decreased hematocrit

13

Polycythemia 

  • An increase in the number of circulating RBCs
    • >6.2 million cells/microliter

14

Polycythemia vera

  • A chronic slow progressive disease of the bone marrow
  • Result: An increase in RBC number due to hyperactivity of the bone marrow
  • Cause: high altitudes, carbon monoxide poisoning, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and other lung problems
  • Results: viscous blood increases load on the heart and can cause damage to the vessels leading to thrombosis.

15

Function and percentage of Neutrophils

  • 50-70%
  • First phagocytes to arrive to the site of a bacterial invasion
  • Die in greatest number during bacterial infection

16

Function and percentage of Eosinophils

  • 1-5%
  • Engulf immune complexes or antigen-antibodies
  • Detox foreign proteins
  • Elevated with chronic allergies or parasitic infections

17

Function and percentage of Basophils

  • 0-1%
  • Secrete heparin and histamine
  • inhibits clotting, and causes vasodilation to promote inflammation and increases capillary permeability

18

Function and percentage of lymphocytes

  • 20-40%
  • T-lymphocyte: produced in bone marrow and developed in the thymus
    • Cell mediated immunity - fight viruses, suppress immune response, act as helpers
  • B-lymphocyte: produced and developed in the marrow.
    • Antibody-mediated immunity - fight bacteria
  • Natural killer cells: remove pre-cancer or cancerous cells

19

Function and percentage of monocytes

  • 1-6%
  • mature into macrophages (phagocytes)
  • recognize and engulf invaders
  • Present invaders to helper T cells (lymphocyte)
  • Secrete interleukin I

20

The local inflammatory response is

  • redness
  • heat
  • swelling

21

Plasma r/t blood donation

  • whole blood - formed elements
    • Contains electrolytes: Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, HCO3-
  • don't need blood type to donate
  • second safest donation

22

Serum r/t blood donation

  • Serum = plasma - clotting factors
  • don't need blood type to donate
  • SAFEST donation

23

The most dangerous blood donations are

whole blood

YOU MUST TYPE!

24

The functions of plasma proteins are

  • Maintain capillary osmotic pressure (hold water)
  • Act as buffer to maintain pH
  • Transport hormones
  • Reserve of amino acids for cell nutrition
  • Blood coagulation

25

Albumin

  • maintain osmotic pressure and transport

26

Globulins

  • Lipoproteins; immunoglobulins

27

Fibrinogen

blood clotting

28

Processes that maintain hemostasis r/t vessel rupture

  • vasoconstriction above rupture
  • Platelets clump to fill rupture
  • Formation of hemostatic plug (clot)
  • Clot retraction and dissolution (prevent thrombus)

29

Stage I of Coagulation

  • Formation of prothrombin converting factor

30

Stage II of Coagulation

  • Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin requires
    • prothrombin
    • prothrombin converting factor
    • calcium

31

Stage III of Coagulation

  • Convert soluable fibrinogen to insoluable fibrin (coagulation) requires
    • Fibrinogen
    • Throbin
    • calcium

32

Physiological anticoagulants

  • antithromboplastin
  • antithrombin III
  • heparin

33

Anticoagulant drugs

  • Agents depressing procoagulants
  • Agents that remove Ca2+ from the blood
  • Agents that inhibit prothrombin synthesis in the liver

34

Clot buster drugs

  • Tissue plasminogen activation (TPA)
  • Streptokinase
    • clot busters must be administered within 60 minutes of symptoms

35

Antigens are 

proteins found on the RBC membrane

36

Antibodies are

proteins found in the plasma

37

Major agglutination is

  • agglutination of the donor's blood
  • occurs when the recipent's antibodies attack the antigens on the donor RBC

38

Minor agglutination is

  • agglutination of the recipient's RBCs
  • occurs when the donor's antibodies attack the recipient's antigens on the RBC surface

39

When assessing risk for reaction with blood donation ask

  1. Will the recipient's antibodies attack the donor's RBC antigens?
    1. Yes = major agglutination
  2. Will the donor's antibodies attack the recipients RBC antigens?
    1. Yes = minor agglutination
  3. NOTE: O- whole blood can be given to anyone in an emergency and will result in minor agglutination (except O- recipient)