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Advanced Human Physiology > Blood Normal Values > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Normal Values Deck (88):
1

Blood volume measurement in females

4.5 - 5.5 liters

2

Blood volume measurement in males

5.0-6.0 liters

3

a microliter of blood is ____; it contains ______ RBC

a drop of blood; 5 million RBC

4

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate for females is

2.0 - 20.0 mm/hr

5

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate for males

2.0-10.0 mm/hr

6

There are how many hemoglobin molecules in an RBC cell; it accounts for ____ of cell mass

200-300 hemoglobin molecules in one RBC cell; it accounts for 1/3 of cell mass

7

The Hematocrit for females is

42% +/- 5%

8

The hematocrit for males is

47% +/- 5%

9

The O2 carrying capacity of blood is

16-25 ml O2/dL

10

The hemoglobin content for females is

12-16 gms/dL

11

the hemoglobin content for males is

14-18 gms/dL

12

The erythrocyte count for females is

4.2-5.4 million cells/ microliter

13

The erythrocyte count for males is

4.6-6.2 million cells/ microliter

14

The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is

82-92 cubic micrometers

15

The mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is

27-31 mmg or pg

16

the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is (MCHC)

32-36%

17

The white blood cell count is

7,000-10,000 cells/ microliter

18

Neutrophil counts are

50-70%

19

eosinophil counts are

1-5%

20

basophil counts are

0-1%

21

lymphocyte counts are

20-40%

22

monocyte counts are

1-6%

23

thrombocyte counts are

150,000 - 350,000 cells/microliter

24

Agglutination of one of the wells indicates

that the antibody being tested is present on the surface of the RBC

25

The function of an unoppette is to

dilute a blood preparation so that RBCs may be counted

26

A hemacytometer is used to

manually (grid) count RBCs

27

Tallquist paper is used to

evaluate hemoglobin content by comparing the color to a standardized color scale

28

A Stat-site is used to

electronically determine hemoglobin content

29

A microhematocrit gives an indication of the

apparent hematocrit

30

The calculation for MCV is

HCT (1000) / RBC count

31

The calculation for MCH is

Hb (10) / RBC count

32

The calculation for MCHC is

Hb / HCT

33

A MCV < 90pL indicates

microcytic cells and iron deficient anemia

34

A MCV >90pL indicates

macrocytic cells and pernicious anemia

35

A MCH <30pg indicates

hypochromic cells and iron deficient anemia

36

A MCH >30pg indicates

hyperchromic cells and pernicious anemia

37

The calculation to convert apparent hematocrit to corrected hematocrit is

= Apparent hematocrit (0.96)

38

Oxygen capacity can be calculated by

= Hg (1.34)

39

The first stage of coagulation is

Prothrombin is converted to thrombin in the presence of Ca2+ and PCF

40

The second stage of coagulation is

Thrombin is converted into fibrinogen in the presence of Ca2+

41

The third stage of coagulation is

Fibrinogen is converted into insoluble fibrin in the presence of Ca2+

42

What causes the first heart sound?

AV valve slams shut during isovolumetric contraction

ALL valves closed at this time

43

What causes the second heart sound?

SL valve slams shut during isovolumetric relaxation

All heart valves are closed at this time

44

What causes the third heart sound?

Turbulence as the ventricles fill during the first rapid filling phase

45

What causes the fourth heart sound?

Turbulence as the atria contract to finish filling during the second rapid filling phase.

46

Korotkoff sounds are caused by

1. Turbulent flow through a previously occluded artery. The first sound is systolic pressure, and the second is diastolic pressure.

47

Calculation for MAP

= PP/3 + Diastolic pressure

48

Calculation for PP

= Systolic - diastolic pressure

49

Define a pulse deficit

A mismatch between pulse rate and HR

50

Conditions that would result in a pulse rate deficit are:

  1. a very small PP: difference between systolic and diastolic is minimal
  2. Occluded vessel: no blood flow
  3. Arteriosclerosis causes loss of elasticity and an increase in PP
  4. Aortic aneurysm in slow/irregular heart rate
  5. Atherosclerosis: results in irregular heart rate

51

The method of indirect blood pressure determination

  • Korotkoff sounds - sphygmomanometer
  • Pressure created in the aorta maintained by elastic recoil of an artery

52

The P wave represents

  • the signal as it spreads across the atria

53

The T wave represents

ventricle repolarization

54

The PR segment represents

  • The time between AV depolarization and ventricular myocardium depolarization

55

The QRS complex represents 

  • the spread of the signal across the ventricle

56

The PR interval represents

  • The time between the SA depolarization and ventricle myocardium depolarization

57

Why is HR faster when sitting than when supine?

  • When you are sitting, gravity works against the flow of blood to the brain through the carotid sinus.  This idecreases BP and activates the sinus reflex and causes the HR to increase.  Wen you become supine, gravity no longer acts (relative) on blood flow through the carotid causing BP to increase and the HR decreases.

58

How does the respiratory cycle affect HR?

Inspiration + Early Expiration

  • Inspiration
    • decreases BP in carotid sinus which decreases HR
  • Early expiration
    • Causes an increase in central venous pressure (Bainbridge) which increases HR
  • Overall effect is an INCREASE of HR

59

How does exhalation affect HR?

  • Causes an increase in carotid sinus via high pressure which decreases HR

60

A 2:1 heart block will show ______ on the EKG tracing.

  • Two P-waves before the QRS complex

61

A PVC heart condition is

  • premature ventricular contractions
  • P wave is combined with QRS complex

62

A PAC heart condition is.

  • premature atrial contractions
  • abnormal P wave, may merge with T wave

63

An increase in AV node delay will show by

an increased PR segment

64

Bradycardia will be reflected on the EKG

an increase in RR interval

65

Tachycardia will be reflected on the EKG by 

a decrease in RR interval

66

What is specific gravity?

The relative amount of solute in a solution

67

Use Long's coefficient to estimate urinary solids if the SG = 1.030

 specific gravity x Long's = urinary solids in g/L

= 30 x 2.66

= 79 g/L

68

Why is glucose found in urine?

diabetes mellitus, increased sugar in diet, 

69

Why is albumin found in urine?

kidney disease

70

Why are ketone bodies found in urine?

DM, uncontrolled or undiagnosed

starvation

low carb/sugar diet

71

Why are bile pigments found in urine

  • liver disorders
  • biliary obstructions

72

Amylase + ____ = _____

Amylase + Starch = maltose

NOTE: maltose is a disaccharide 

73

Disaccharidases + _____ = ______

Disaccharidases + maltose = glucose, fructose, galactose (simple sugars)

74

Pepsin breaks down

Pepsin + protein = polypeptides

75

Endopeptidases + ________ = ________

Endopeptidases + polypeptides = amino acids

76

Lipase + _______ = ________

Lipase + fat = flycerol + fatty acids

77

What is the role of bile in the digestion of fats?

emulsification = mechanical separation of fat molecules

78

Which enzyme functions at pH of 2

Pepsin

79

What effect does boiling have on an enzyme?

It denatures the protein; enzyme loses its activity

80

What happens at each point indicated?

Q image thumb

  1. AV slams shut (S1), All valves closed, SL open, SYSTOLE
  2. SL closes (S2), All valves closed, AV open, diastole
  3. Turbulence as ventricles filling (S3), diastole
  4. Turbulence as atria contract and ventricles finish filling (S4), diastole

81

What dietary factors are essential for hemoglobin formation?

iron

B12

protein

82

Eosinophilia is

an increase in eosinophils due to antibody-mediated immune response to an allegen.

83

Lymphocytosis is

an increase in lymphocytes due to 

  • Bacteria (b cells)
  • viruses (t cells)

84

Neutropenia is

a decrease in neutrophils

85

Segmented neutrophil percentage indicates

pernicious anemia

86

symptoms of anemia include

malaise, fatigue, tachycardia, brittle nails, SOB, headache, dizziness

87

Function of basophils

  • vasodilation via histamine
  • anticoagulation via heparin

88