Cell Structure Flashcards Preview

Advanced Human Physiology > Cell Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Structure Deck (47):
1

The literal translation of physiology is...

the study of nature or natural processes

2

The modern interpretation of physiology is...

the study of body functions

3

The literal translation of homeostasis is...

wisdom of the body

4

The modern meaning of homeostasis is

the bodies ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions despite a changing environment

5

A negative feedback system moves a system...

toward homeostasis; stabilization

the variable returns to normal values after a disturbance

6

A positive feedback system moves the system...

  • away from homeostasis; destabilization
  • Tries to reinforce a stimulus and take the system away from a set point
  • Not common in the human body

7

General body organization

Cells are

  • the basic structural unit of a living organismm
  • they vary in size, shape and function

8

General body organization

Tissues are

  • made up of different types of cells with a common fuction
  • 4 types in humans: epithelial, connective, nervous, muscle

9

General body organization

Organs are

  • discrete structures, composed of at least two tissue types, that perform a specific function

10

General body organization

Organ systems are

  • made of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose

11

Cell structure and function

General classifications rely on

  1. Size: range from 7-8 microns (RBCs) to 120 microns (Purkinje fibers)
  2. Shape:  squamous, columnar, cuboidal
  3. Function: exocrine, endocrine, contractile, etc.

12

Organells are 

structures w/in a cell that have specific functions

13

Inclusions are

residues w/in a cell

ex. pigment granules, viruses, bacteria, glycogen (stored sugar) etc.

14

Membranous organelles include the following:

  • nucleus
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • mitochondria
  • golig apparatus
  • encased within a phospholipid bilayer

15

Non-membranous membranes include the following:

  • Microtubules
  • Microfiliments
  • Centrioles
  • Ribosomes

16

A micelle is...

a single layer phospholipid structure

  • If the hydrophilic heads point out the medium is water
  • If the hydrophobic tails point out the medium is non-polar.

17

The hydrophilic heads are 

non-lipid soluble and polar

18

The hydrophobic tains are 

lipid soluble and non-polar

19

Phospholipids move within the membrane _______ and are arranged _______.

  • laterally
  • asymmetrically

20

Cholesterol has the role of _________ of the phospholipid bilayer

stabilizing the membrane

21

Proteins are arranged _________ in the phospholipid bilayer.

  • asymmetrically
  • may span the membrane (integral/intrinsic) or exist on the inner or outer periphery (ecto- endoprotein)

22

The glycocalyx is 

  • "sugar cup"
  • sugar coating to reduce friction on the surface of the cell

23

The intracellular region carries a _____ charge

negative

24

The extracellular matrix carries a ________ charge

positive

25

The function of the nucleus is

  • contains DNA
  • is the site where transcription occurs

26

The rough endoplasmic reticulum is

  • forms proteins
  • reticulum means "netting"

27

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum 

  • is the region of the cell that forms carbohydrates and lipids

28

The mitochondrion

is the organelle which produces ATP (energy) through the aerobic citric acid cycle (Kreb cycle)

29

The function of the lisosome 

is to break down material in the cell

They contain powerful digestive enzymes

they are produced by the golgi apparatus

30

The function of the golgi apparatus is 

to store and package molecules made in cell.

The cis face stores incoming material

the trans face packages and releases lysosomes

31

The function of microtubules is

to transport substances through the cell

it is part of the cytoskeleton

32

The function of the microfilaments is

to act as contractile elements

they are part of the cytoskeleton

33

The role of centrioles is to

guide chromosomes during mitosis

 

34

Ribosomes carry

RNA

35

Anabolism is 

the building chemical reactions within a cell

36

Catabolism is the 

breaking down chemical reactions in the cell

37

excretion is

releasing of waste products from the cell

38

secretion is 

the releasing of synthesized molecules from a cell (mucous, proteins, hormones etc)

39

Mitosis is

cell division that results in two daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell (46)

40

The order of steps of mitosis is

  1. prophase
  2. metaphase
  3. anaphase
  4. telophase
  5. interphase

41

During prophase...

the nuclear membrane dissapears and chromosomes form

42

During metaphase

chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate

43

During anaphase

chromosomes move back towards the centrioles

44

During telephase

chromosomes approximate centrioles (cytokinesis)

the parent cell divides into two daughter cells

45

During interphase

the cell duplicates chromosomes in three phases

  1. Gap1: organelles replicate
  2. Synthesis: DNA duplicates
  3. Gap2: final protein synthesis

46

Mitosis occurs in order to

replace or increase tissue mass

47