respiratory quiz Flashcards Preview

Advanced Human Physiology > respiratory quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in respiratory quiz Deck (38):
1

Forced expiratory volume (FEV)

  • a test which limits the time a subject has to expel vital capacity air.
  • Normal 97% in 3 sec
  • Reduced in restrictive pulmonary diseases.

2

Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV)

  • measures both volume and flow rates to assess overall pulmonary ventilation function
  • pt inspires and expires and deeply and fast as possible while tidal volume and RR are measured
  • look at average volume/respiratory cycle.
  • tends to be reduced in both restrictive and obstructive diseases

3

spirometer

the instrument used to measure breath

4

spirogram

the record of volume change versus time of breath

5

tidal volume

  • the volume of air inspired or expired during a single normal breath
  • ~500mL at rest

6

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

  • the volume of air that can be maximally inhaled after tidal inspiration
  • resting IRV is male: 3300mL
  • Female: 1900mL
  • IRV decreases with
    • increased age
    • decreased compliance

7

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

  • the volume of air that can be maximally expired after tidal expiration
  • males: 1000mL
  • Females: 700mL
  • ERV decreases with
    • increased age
    • decreased lung elasticity

 

8

Residual volume (RV)

  • the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of maximal expiration
  • does not change with exercise
  • Male: 1200ml
  • Female: 1100ml
  • Residual increases with
    • increased age

9

Inspiratory capacity (IC) = 

Tidal Volume (TV) + inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

 

10

Expiratory capacity (EC) = 

Tidal volume (TV) + expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

11

Functional residual capacity (FRC)  = 

expiratory reserve volume + residual volume

ERV + RV

12

Vital capacity (VC) = 

  • inspiratory reserve volume + Tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume
  • IRV + TV + ERV
  • Sum of the three primary lung volumes
  • Vital capacity decreases with
    • age
    • restrictive disorders

13

Total lung capacity (TLC) = 

inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume + residual volume

IRV + TV + ERV + RV

14

Influencing factors on the rate of diffusion

  • partial pressure - directly
  • surface area - directly
  • thickness of the membrane - indiretly
  • solubility of gas - direclty
    • CO2 is 20x more soluble than O2

15

Alveolar ventilation of the lungs

Ideal ratio vs. Real ratio

Why?

  • Ideal is 1:1
  • Real is 0.8-0.9:1
  • Regional airflow assumes all parts of the lungs are equally ventilated and perfused.  
    • Reality is the base has greater alvealar ventilation due to a number of factors

16

Influencing Factors for ventilation-perfusion ratios: air flow to the base

  • Larger transpulmonary pressure across the lung base
  • Increased airway resistance in the upper passages 
  • Alveolar O2 and CO2 levels
    • High CO2 cause decreased blood flow (high levels cause vasoconstriction and low blood flow)
    • High O2 cause the greates blood flow (high levels cause vasodilation and increased blood flow)
  • Gravity
    • Upright position keeps a larger percentage of blood in the lung base

17

Boyle's Law

PV = K

18

Dalton's law

Pressure = P1 + P2 + P3 + etc

19

Muscles of inspiration

external intercostals, diaphragm

20

Muscles of expiration

  • Normal expiration = relaxation of inspiratory muscles
  • Forced expiration = internal intercostals and rectus abdominus

21

Compliance is

  • CL = V/P
  • the measurement of lung distensibility or the ease of stretching
  • NOTE: compliance refers ONLY to INSPIRATION!

22

Compliance curve shows

  • the ease of inflatability against averages
    • steep slope = easily inflatable
    • flat slope = difficult to inflate

23

Calculation for the transpulmonary pressure

P(Transpulmonary) = P(alveolar) - P(interplural)

24

Calculation for pulmonary ventilation

Pulmonary ventilation = TV x RR

25

Calculation for alveolar ventilation

Alveolar ventilation = (TV - ADS) x RR

26

Gas exhange is _______ during inspiration and expiration

constant

27

It takes _____ to replace all the air in the alveolus

90 seconds

28

Calculating O2 carrying capacity

Carrying capacity = gm Hb/dl x 1.34 ml O2/gm Hb

ex: Carrying capacity = 15 g/dl x 1.34 ml O2/gm Hb

= 20.1 ml O2/dl 

or 20 vol%

29

The body requires what rate of blood flow for delivery of sufficient oxygen?

5 Liters

30

The most powerful chemical influence on the regulation of alveolar ventilation is

PCO2 in the systemic arterial blood

31

The greates partial pressure of carbon dioxide is in the

intracellular fluid

32

According to the dissociation curve, oxyhemoglobin saturation is effected PCO2, pH, H+, and Temp in the following manner.

  • PCO2 : directly
  • pH :indirectly (increase = decrease O2)
  • H+: directly
  • Temp: directly

33

The Hering-Breuer reflex...

prevents overstretch by inhibiting further inspiration

34

The Bohr Effect states

as H+ is loaded onto Hb, O2 is bumped off

35

The Haldane effect states

An increase in CO2 production causes the Hb to accept more CO2 

thus limiting the amount of free CO2 in blood circulation

36

The distribution of CO2 in circulation is

  • 10% Dissolved in blood
  • 20% in Carbaminohemoglobin
  • 70% in Bicarbonate

37

The distribution of O2 in the blood

  • 1.5% dissolved in the blood
  • 98.5% bound in oxyhemoglobin

38