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Advanced Human Physiology > cardiac > Flashcards

Flashcards in cardiac Deck (19):
1

Cardiac Output =

stroke volume x HR

2

CO =

Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)/ Peripheral Resistance (PR)

3

Calculating MAP

(PP/3) + Diastolic pressure

4

Stroke volume =

end diastolic volume - end systolic volume

5

Factors influencing EDV

Arterial pressure - direct Ventricular compliance - direct

6

Factors influencing ESV

Ventricular contractility - indirect

7

Frank Starling Law

force contraction vs. length of muscle

Increase venous return = increased ventricular contraction = increased SV

8

Ventricular afterload is

the pressure in the arteries that are exerted back on the ventricles

9

Increased ventricular afterload =

Increased ESV

Decreased SV

10

Calculation for ejection fraction

Ejection fraction = (SV/EDV) x 100

11

If HR increases then

EDV decreases

SV decreases

12

Ejection fraction is

the percentage of blood pumped out of the heart per beat relative to the EDV

13

Pulse pressure is

the pressure necessary to feel a pulse

14

Factors relating to pulse pressure

  • SV - direct
  • HR - inverse
  • AD (arterial distensibility) - Inverse
  • PR - Inverse

15

Calculation for Pulse Pressure (PP)

PP = Systolic pressure - diastolic pressure

16

Homeostatic mechanisms for cardiac maintenance are

  • Capillary fluid shift - fluid moved out of vein to decrease volume
  • Renal adjustment of plasma volume
  • Control of heart rate - carotic sinus reflex
  • Vascular reflexes - diameter of sphincters change

17

Starling forces: filtration vs. absorption

  • Outward pressures
    • HBP - Hydrostatic blood pressure
    • TPOP - Tissue protein
  • Inward pressures
    • THP - Tissue H pressure
    • PPOP - plasma protein osmotic pressure
  •  

18

Absorption occurs in the 

systemic capillaries

19

Factors influencing edema

  • Excess out
    • Increased HBP: heart failure
    • Increased TPOP: inflammation
  • Excess in
    • Decreased PPOP: protein deficiency