Blood and Hematopoesis Flashcards Preview

Biochemistry > Blood and Hematopoesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood and Hematopoesis Deck (27):
1

what are 4 important functions of the blood system?

-gas exchange

-immunity

-tissue repair and regeneration

-tissue homeostasis

2

what are characteristics of plasma?

-nutrients

-waste

-signaling

-55% of blood components

3

what are characteristics of RBCs?

-oxygen transport

-CO2 conversion

-45% of blood components

4

what are characteristics of white blood cells?

-immunity

-clotting and repair

-signaling 

-part of buffy coat

-<1% of blood components

5

what is a characteristic of platelets?

-hemostasis 

-part of buffy coat

-<1% of blood components

6

what is hematopoesis?

-production of blood cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes)

7

where are blood cells produced?

-produced from hematopoetic stem cells in the bone marrow

-many mature in the periphery

8

Which 3 cells are components of the adaptive immune system?

lymphocytes:

-plasma cell, T cell, and NK cell

9

Which 5 cells are components of the innate immune system?

monocytes:

-macrophage
-dendritic cell

granulocytes:

-neutrophil
-eosinophil
-basophil

10

which 3 cells that assist in hematopoesis reside in the bone marrow?

stem cells, progenitor cells, and blast cells

11

what are some important characteristics of erythrocytes?

-packed with hemoglobin

-carbonic anhydrase

-CO2 exchange

-high surface area to volume ratio

-flexible

-no nucleus or organelles

12

what is the lifespan of a typical erythrocyte?

-120 days

-1-2% of total volume is replaced daily

13

what is hematocrit?

-erythrocyte blood count

-between 40-50%

-can be influenced by environmental factors

14

what hormone drives erythropoesis?

erythropoietin (EPO)

15

T or F: hypoxia increases lactic acid and EPO production

true

16

what does the production of RBCs require?

-iron

-folic acid (vitamin B9)

-cobalamin (vitamin B12)

17

what are the major functions of leukocytes?

-kill pathogens

-clear damaged tissues

-initiate cellular repair

-development

-organ homeostasis

18

what are some characteristics of neutrophils?

-primary inflammatory cell ("first responders")

-granulocyte

-multilobed nuclei

-several effector mechanisms, including phagocytosis, degranulation, and net formation

-restricted to vasculature

-must be recruited to sites of inflammation

19

what are some characteristics of granulocytes?

-3 major classes: mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils -dense granules that contain antimicrobials, NTs, pro-inflammatory signals, and growth factors

-degranulation upon activation

-predominantly reside in peripheral tissues

-respond to parasites and worms

20

what are some characteristics of monocytes?

-differentiate into macrophages or dendritic cells

-kill pathogens, clear debris

-phagocytose antigens

-activate the adaptive immune system (lymphocytes)

21

what are some characteristics of lymphocytes?

-T cells, B cells, and NK cells

-adaptive immune system

-cellular: T cells and NK cells

-humoral: B cells

-pathogens and diseased self-tissue

-immune memory (basis of immunizations)

-often require monocyte activation

22

what are some characteristics of megakaryocytes?

-reside within the bone marrow

-secrete platelets

23

what are platelets?

-small cell fragments

-organelles, but no nucleus

-involved in hemostasis

-necessary for clot formation and removal

-form plugs

-contain protein-rich granules

-involved in the inflammatory response

-structural-protein dense

24

what is hemostasis, and what are the three mechanisms that drive it?

prevention of blood loss

1) vascular constriction

2) platelet plug

3) coagulation - fibrin matrix formation and fibroblast recruitment

25

draw the coagulation pathway

26

what two pathways produce prothrombin activator?

1) intrinsic pathway - begins in the blood

2) extrinsic pathway - begins at the site of tissue trauma

*these pathways function simultaneously

27

what do the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways produce, and what are some simiilarities of these pathways?

-leads to the production of prothrombin activator

-most factors in pathway are proteases

-vitamin K is essential

-fibrinolysis degrades the fibrin meshwork