Regulation and Integration of Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Regulation and Integration of Metabolism Deck (50):
1

the ___ system controls the body's organ systems

nervous system

2

describe top-down oversight/control that the nervous system has over the body's organ system

  • nervous system has direct or indirect control over the entire body's organ system
  • it is metabolically demanding

3

what type of control is the autonomic nervous system?

direct control

4

what are the two pathways for nervous system control of organ function, and what controls these pathways?

  • autonomic nervous system
  • neuroendocrine system
  • controlled by the hypothalamus

5

the hypothalamus provides ___ organ system control

descending

6

describe the 2 pathways of control that the hypothalamus provides

  • direct
    • autonomic
    • innervation of pre-ganglionic neurons
  • indirect
    • hormonal
    • release of pituitary and adrenal cortex hormones

7

describe the 3 parts of the autonomic nervous system

  • sympathetic nervous system
    • fight or flight
    • response to stressful or harmful stimuli
    • ACh used in pre-ganglionic signals
  • parasympathetic nervous system
    • rest and digest
    • replenishment of the body's resources
  • enteric nervous system
    • digestive system function
    • movement of food through the gut

8

"direct innervation of organ systems to unconsciously coordinate their function" describes what nervous system?

autonomic nervous system

9

what 2 receptors feed back to the nucleus of the solitary tract in autonomic control of cardiac function, and what do they detect?

  • chemoreceptors detect blood O2/CO2 composition
  • baroreceptors detect blood pressure

10

describe sympathetic vs parasympathetic autonomic control of cardiac function

  • sympathetic
    • NE
    • increases heart rate and vasoconstriction
  • parasympathetic
    • cholinergic
    • decreases heart rate and vasodilation

11

what are the effects of increased vs decreased blood pressure in relation to sympathetic/parasympathetic cardiac function?

  • increased BP inhibits tonic sympathetic activity and activates vagal parasympathetic activity
  • decreased BP activates vagal sympathetic activity and inhibits parasympathetic activity

12

describe the enteric nervous system

  • governs gastrointestinal function
  • mesh-like neuronal network surrounding the gut
  • roughly 100 million neurons
  • sympathetic and parasympathetic oversight
  • can function independently of the CNS

13

what are the main organs involved in the neuroendocrine system?

  • thyroid
  • parathyroid
  • adipose tissue
  • adrenals
  • pancreas
  • ovaries/testes

14

what are the 3 key players of the HPA axis?

  • hypothalamus
  • pituitary
  • adrenal glands

part of the neuroendocrine system

15

the neuroendocrine system responds to what?

  • responds to peripheral sensory information and higher brain centers

16

the neuroendocrine system is initiated by what?

the release of hormones and signals from the hypothalamus

17

T or F:

the neuroendocrine system provides diffuse, system wide endocrine signaling

true

18

describe the HPA axis

hypothalamus - pituitary - adrenal axis regulates hormone release

realize that cortisol is changing the metabolism of its targets

19

describe the major HPA axis hormones and their targets

20

what type of hormone is insulin and glucagon?

  • peptide hormone
  • proteolytic processing of prohormone
  • plasma membrane receptors; second messengers

21

what type of hormone is epinephrine?

  • catecholamine
  • from tyrosine
  • plasma membrane receptors; second messengers

22

what are eicosanoids?

  • hormones formed from arachidonate
  • plasma membrane recetpors; second messengers
  • ex. PGE1
  • blocked by NSAIDs

23

what are the major organs that influence metabolism?

  • brain
  • cardiac muscle
  • lymphatic system
  • adipose tissue
  • skeletal muscle
  • small intestine
  • portal vein
  • liver
  • pancreas

24

describe how the brain influences metabolism

  • transports ions to maintain membrane potential
  • integrates inputs from body and surroundings
  • sends signals to other organs

25

describe how cardiac muscle influences metabolism

  • uses ATP generated aerobically to pump blood

26

describe how the lymphatic system influences metabolism

  • carries lipids from intestine to liver

27

describe how adipose tissue influences metabolism

  • synthesizes, stores, and mobilizes triacylglycerols

28

describe how skeletal muscle influences metabolism

uses ATP generated aerobically or anaerobically to do mechanical work

29

describe how the small intestine influences metabolism

  • absorbs nutrients from the diet
  • moves them into blood or lymphatic system

30

describe how the portal vein influences metabolism

carries nutrients from intestine to liver

31

describe how the liver influences metabolism

  • processes fats, CHOs, and proteins from the diet
  • synthesizes and distributes lipids, ketone bodies, and glucose for other tissues
  • converts excess nitrogen to urea

32

describe how the pancreas influences metabolism

secretes insulin and glucagon in response to changes in blood glucose concentration

33

describe carbohydrate liver metabolism

  • remember, pyruvate can be obtained from the cori cycle

34

describe the roles of the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder in the regulation of CHO, AA, and lipid metabolism

  • liver
    • blood sugar
    • CHO storage (glycogen) and regulation
    • AA content
    • lipid formation and mobilization
    • first pass metabolism
  • pancreas
    • insulin release during high blood sugar
    • glucagon release during low blood sugar
    • large intestine pH buffering
    • protease release
  • gallbladder
    • bile salts release to degrade lipids

35

describe amino acid liver metabolism

36

describe the glucose-alanine cycle

alanine transports amine groups to the liver

37

describe fatty acid liver metabolism

38

describe how hormone signaling controls feeding

don't need to know the specifics, just the main pathways and what they do

39

describe how blood glucose levels directly regulate insulin release

40

glucagon is constitutively released at ___ glucose levels

low

41

insulin and somatostatin inhibit ___ release

glucagon

42

reduced ___ incites glucagon release and inhibits insulin release

glucose

43

describe glucagon's role in response to low blood glucose

44

describe somatostatin's role in response to high blood glucose

45

describe how insulin drives glucose uptake, glycogen storage, and lipid synthesis

46

describe how glucagon drives glucose release, and amino acid and fatty acid breakdown

47

describe fuel sources during starvation

48

what are the normal available metabolic fuels?

  • triacylglycerols (adipose tissue)
  • proteins (mainly muscle)
  • glycogen (muscle, liver)
  • circulating fuels (glucose, fatty acids, triacylglycerols)

49

describe the relationship between grehlin, plasma glucose, and insulin in relation to eating a meal

50

describe what happens in the liver during starvation

end up having to break down musculature in order to get glucose to the brain